History of McKean County
J.H. Beers, Chicago, 1890
Bradford Township




BRADFORD TOWNSHIP is bounded on the north by the south line of Foster township, south by Lafayette and Keating townships, east by Otto township, and on the west by Corydon township. The east branch of Tuna Creek (this creek derives its name from the eddy at its mouth, called by the Indians Ichunuagwant or Big Cove with Large Mouth), running north from Lewis run, near the center of the south line, forms a confluence with the west branch at Bradford, while at Tarport and Babcock the main stream receives Kendall Creek and Foster Brook. The west branch heads in Two Mile Run and flows northeast from the southwest corner of the township to Bradford city. Kendall Creek rises in the southeast corner and flows northwest to Tarport, and Foster Brook rises near the east line of the northeast quarter of the township, flowing almost west to Babcock. Marilla Creek, the principal feeder of the west branch, comes down from the heights in the northwest corner. A hundred smaller streams are found here, some finding a way to the main streams through deep canons. Mount Raub, a mile east of Bradford, is the highest measured point, being 2,225 feet above level. The lowest point !1,415 feet) is where Tuna Creek enters New York State. All the higher points are capped by Pottsville conglomerate, which is either the Kinzua Creek sandstone or the Olean conglomerate, while in the south and west the Johnson run sandstone is found resting on its Alton coal bed. The dip of the Olean and, consequently, the oil sand from Rock City to Tarport (nine miles) averages five and one-half feet per mile; Tarport to Bradford, thirteen feet; Bradford to DeGolier, twelve and one-half feet; DeGolier to Lewis run, thirty-seven feet; Bradford to Marilla summit (summit elevation 2,040 feet, and distance six miles), three feet per mile, and the average dip from Tarport to the southeast corner of the township is fourteen feet per mile. The total thickness of rocks explored in the outcrop or wells is 1,977 feet extending from cap of Mount Raub to the Chemung formations. Bold outcrops of Olean conglomerate are visible in the Tuna Valley, and west of Custer City they take the peculiar features of the formation at Olean, Rock City, where the summit is 2,850 feet above tide. In the Marilla region occurs the extreme northern outcrop, in the United States of the Appalachian coal basis, but the area is so small it is held in little estimation by coal men. At Lewis run is the black band iron ore (under a bed of black band shales) which yielded on test 43.75 per cent of metal. Near the head of Two Mile run, just across the south town line, five varieties of ore exist, one of which yields 48.65 per cent of metal, and one as low as 23.10 per cent. The mineral paint ore on the Foster farm was largely used by the Erie Railroad Company some years ago in painting depots, bridges and cars. It was ground and mixed with crude oil, and found to be very desirable for an outside paint. There being no mill near in which it could be ground, the expense of transporting it to Buffalo, having it ground and then sent to market, was too great for the limited capital of the party engaged in its manufacture. A barn now standing near Smethport built some years ago by Col. Wilcox is entirely constructed of McKean County products except the nails, and is painted with the paint in question.

The population of Bradford Township and Village in 1870 was 1,446, of which 100 were foreign-born citizens. In June, 1874, the number was estimated at 1,500, including 350 in the village. The oil production for the preceding six years was roughly estimated at twenty-one barrels per day, which sold for $1.30 per barrel. One lumberman ran over 5,000,000 feet of white pine logs and manufactured over 3,000,000 shingles that year, and with the other lumber and bark interests of Zeliff, Clark & Babcock, Peterson, J. W. Hilton and P. T. Kennedy brought to the township at least $150,000. Three hundred cows yielded $12,000 worth of butter and $3,620 worth of cheese, while grain and root crops, cattle, sheep, hogs and horses contributed largely to the township's wealth.

The population of Bradford Township in 1880 was 2,699. In 1888 the township gave 270 Republican, 132 Democratic, 41 Prohibition and 19 Labor votes, or a total of 462. This number multiplied by six, as in the case of Bradford city, gives the population, at the close of last year, 2,772.

The population of Bradford city in 1880 was 9,197. Of this number 2,622 resided in the First Ward, 1,704 in the Second, 2,603 in the Third, 1,520 in the Fourth, and 1,228 in the Fifth. In November, 1888, there were 178 votes cast in the First Ward for the Republican candidate for president, 265 for the Democratic, and 8 for the Prohibitionist; in the Second Ward the figures were 242, 112 and 15 respectively; in the Third, 143, 181 and 17; in the Fourth, 228, 106 and 7, and in the Fifth, 122, 73 and 9, while Streeter received 7 votes in all the wards, or 913+737+56+7=1,713, multiplied by 6 equals 10,278, the population based on vote.

The resident tax-payers of Bradford township in 1844-45 were Phila Ackley, N. J. Buel, Smith Barton, William Coleman, John Dudley, James Cooper, Orrin Fuller, C. Lukins, Hiram and J. O. Beardsley, Phil Barron, Chester Barron, Asmit Brown, Bradley & Fobes (saw-mill owners), Jones and A. L. Buchanan, A. W. Buchanan, George Brookmire, William Beardsley, Aaron Boon, James Babcock, H. C. Blakesley, James Blair (assessed $100 for a gold watch), Andrew and W. P. Browne, John Boyd, Henry Conklin, Erastus Croak, Ed Case, J. L. Colegrove, Dyer Cramer, John Corwin, Henry Collins, John and Orrin Coleman, J. F. Clark, Jared Curtis, Philetus Corwin, Dana & Smith (grist and saw-mill owners), William Dikeman, Joe DeLong, Ben, Dan and Sam Dikeman, Lorenzo and Silas Drake, James, Abel, David and William DeGolier, Nathan DeGolier (saw-mill owner), F. E. Dodge, Tom Doloff, Samuel and Darius Emery, H. Edson, P. D. Dean (owner of a gold watch), L. Dewey (owner of a silver watch), Nathaniel, Newton and Warren Edson, William Fisher (saw-mill owner), G. W. Fisher, H. Fox, M. Filler, Jonathan Fuller & Son, Isaac Farr, Ephraim Foster, David Foster, Edmond Freeman (farmer, near Custer City), C. D. Foot, L. S. Foster, Daniel and H. W. Glass, R. Gates, Nathan Green, A. and A. L. Houghton, Hiram Hagadorn, William Hook, O. Hegle, Orrin and Benjamin Havens, Simon Hamond, A. O. Hunt, Hunt, Bradley & Fobes (saw-mill owners), John and Absalom Hutchison, Lyman Imus, John Inglebee, G. W. and Timothy Kelly, James Lilly, James Meddock, Willliam Miller, W. G. McKean, William and Simeon Morris, Amos Moore (saw-mill owner), Dr. McDougall, J. F. Melvin, Melvin & Wheaton (saw-mill owners), G. W. Mantz, Michael McCullough, Sands Niles, Dr. E. C. Olds (tan-yard owner), Barnabus Pike, R. C. Phillips, R. B. Rogers, George Reynolds, John Rutherford, Seth Scott, William Sherman (saw-mill owner), Silas Stormes, J. P. S. Snape (a foreigner), W. Snyder, H. Stellon, Amos Shepherd, W. C. Shedd, Silas Sutton, William Tanner, Jerry Totton, Col. L. C. Little (agent for Boston Land Company), William Vansickles, L. R. Vaughn, Henry Webb (saw-mill owner), Roswell Walker, J. S. and T. L. V. Waggoner, Allen Whittaker, Matt Woodruff, Matthew Withrow (saw-mill owner), Sabines Walker, Henry Welks, John & Willard Whipple (saw-mill owners) and Eli Whipple. L. S. Foster was accessor.

In 1846 the stores in Bradford Village were those of L. C. Little, A. K. Johnson, R. Walker & Co., Melvin & Wheaton and R. P. Allen, the grocery of Seth Scott and the tavern of S. Walker. In December of this year Kingsbury & Fuller, the Boston Company, Sam W. Bradley and Noble & Tozer were merchants.

The merchants of Bradford Township in 1852 were S. Holmes & Co., (J. H. Porter), J. F. Melvin, B. Chamberlain and B. McCoy, H. Hazzard & Co., David Hunt, G. A. S. Crooker and Daniel Kingsbury. McCoy, Melvin & Co. paid a tax of $10, while the others paid $7.

In 1829 David DeGolier and his wife took three days to move from the site of the present town of Eldred to their farm on the east branch of the Tuna. The Beardsleys, Fishers, Dollops and Fosters were then in the valley, and Henry Bradford Dollop was the first white child born there, in that same house above Sawyer City which was destroyed by the glycerine explosion of 1880. Of the two first houses built on the site of Bradford, one was occupied by the Hart family, six boys and six girls, including three sets of twins. The Deacon speaks of wolves being very plentiful, even in 1867, when the well drillers appeared on the west branch, the time whistles would be chorused by packs of wolves. He further states that No. 1 well, on the Tibbett farm, was the first successful one on the east branch. The farm was purchased by Louis Emery, Jr.

Warrant 3906 dated July 17, 1793, to William Bingham, the consideration for 1,100 acres being 5, 8s. The patent was signed by Gov. Mifflin December 12, 1794. On February 6, 1795, Bingham deeded the warrant to Robert Morris and John Nicholson, but it fell into the hands of the Binghams in 1799 as shown in Deed Book F, page 41. In 1851 the United States Land Company deeded this tract to Daniel Kingsbury.

Col. Levitt C. Little, agent for the United States Land Company, who had purchased 250,000 acres in McKean County, settled where Bradford city now is, and the place was called Littleton. The first log house was constructed in December, 1837, where the old calaboose stood; but later a frame house was erected where the Berry block stands. The plan of the town was drawn in 1838 by Leech, of Boston, after the Colonel's idea. In 1840 another plat was drawn by C. D. Webster, wherein is shown the space for a church house where is now the St. James Hotel. Main Street was known as the Smethport Road, the south extension of Mechanic Street, the Warren Road, and northward, the Olean Road. Congress Street was a short alley, which connected Main Street with the Corydon Road. The old lumbering town of Littleton was down in Egypt until 1858, when a weekly newspaper, the Miner, was inaugurated, and the name of Bradford assumed.

In December, 1849, when Judge Ward came from Cattaraugus County, N. Y., he settled at Tarport and took charge of the large school there. He was at once struck with the remarkable progressive character of the people and merchants, and equally so by the pupils. Prof. F. A. Allen was then county superintendent and principal of the Smethport Academy. Tarport was then the business center of the Bradford lumber field, and here were the large stores of John F. Melvin (who came as a lumberman in 1826, and Benjamin Chamberlain, his partner, who lived in Cattaraugus County. Sylvanus Holmes and Joseph Porter also had a large store there. Hiram Hazzard was also a merchant, and like the others, engaged in lumbering. David Hunt was solely a merchant; Sabines Walker carried on his grocery; Harvey D. Hicks was postmaster (it is thought deputy to Mr. Melvin) and hotel-keeper; Dr. Goit Brown was physician there, while Dr. Peckham was at Littleton. Johnson & Leech were sole dealers in pine lumber and shingles. There were four saw-mills running, of which W. R. Fisher owned one and Melvin & Chamberlain the remaining three. The school building was a large one, ornamented with a cupola, and in this building the Methodists, Baptists and Congregationalists used to worship. Elder Porter (who owned the farm on which Judge Ward's house now is) was minister of the last-named denomination, while the energetic Williams watched over the Methodists and Elder Prosser over the Baptists. Judge Ward presided over this school for two sessions, then moved to Bradford to take charge of the village school, and about 1855 he established the Bradford Academy, with Mr. Sellick, assistant. This select school continued only two years, but Judge Ward continued teaching at Limestone, and after the war completed his school experiences at Salamanca. After Mr. Kingsbury's office was really established Tarport began to decline, and Littleton to advance.

At Littleton was Daniel Kingsbury's little store, also that of G. D. H. Crooker. The Boston Company's land office was just opened with Mr. Kingsbury in charge, and Col. Little, agent. The double mill stood just west of the Mechanic Street iron bridge; a frame school house stood on what is now the corner of Corydon and Mechanic Streets. Therein religious services were held by the preachers named in the history of Tarport. From this period the progress of Littleton dates. Thomas J. Melvin, Loyal Ward (who, about war times carried on a store at Tarport) and Nelson Parker established their business at Littleton after the war. E. C. Old's tannery was here in 1849. Among the leading lumbermen were Fuller and Miller, of Bolivar run. The firm of Bradley & Fobes had three mills on Foster Brook. At the State Line, on the Tuna, was the Webb and Leech & Johnson mills; up Kendall Creek was F. A. Moore's mill, also Whipple's and Silas Sutton's. Up the south branch was N. DeGolier's mill, and above Bradford Fobes & Bradley had a mill. The Judge is convinced that this list covers the mills in operation forty years ago. All over the country shingle makers found a home, bringing the shingles to the lumberman in the evening and receiving their pay. The square timber industry was also very extensive, as the pines were large and clear. The large timber was rafted and run down the Tuna to the Allegheny, and thence to the Ohio.

The first golden wedding celebration ever held in Tuna Valley was that of July, 1883, by W. R. Fisher and wife. Forty years prior to this date they settled on the Tarport Road in a log cabin which this old settler erected. In 1847 he built the house in which the celebration was held. Dan Glass, who for forty years played the violin throughout the Tuna and neighboring valleys, contributed the music on this occasion.

In September, 1875, when C. L. Wheeler came to Bradford, the business of the village was represented by Thomas Melvin, who kept a general store, Frank Davis, the druggist and telegraph operator, and Wilbur DeGolier, watchmaker and postmaster. J. K. Pomeroy kept a dry goods store; Albert DeGolier had a general store, the popular Bradford House, Green's Hotel on Main Street, while the old St. Nicholas Hotel stood where the Producer's Exchange now is. The hotel formerly kept by P. M. Fuller was in existence in 1875.

The officers of the township elected in February, 1890, are as follows; Supervisors, J. L. Morris, H. Boss; school directors, W. H. Emery, H. G. Cutting; auditor, M. Ingalsby, Sr.; collector, J. L. Morris; constable, G. W. Eddy; town clerk, H. C. Chesney; judge of election, First District, C. A. Wilbur; inspectors, C. E. Seely, Louis Brown; judge of election, Second District, W. W. White; inspectors, George A. Brown, James Bell.


Custer City, south of Bradford, was brought into existence during the days of the oil stampede up the east branch. Here are the works of the Rock Glycerine Company noticed in the history of the city. The bull and bear fight of July 1, 1879, took place at Custer City, under the management of one Marsh. The officers of the Pennsylvania society for prevention of cruelty to animals, tried to stop the fight; but the people threatened to pitch them into the pit, and ultimately drove them as far as Bradford. The fight went on, but the bear, escaping from the infuriated bull, ran through the crowd, was recaptured, placed in the pit and made fight to the death. The agent had twenty men arrested for participation in this brutal affair, but without satisfactory results. The fire of December 16, 1881, destroyed seven buildings, including the Straight House. In March, 1885, the explosion of 6,000 pounds of glycerine at Custer City resulted in the deaths of H. V. Pratt and William Harrington.

DeGolier, north of Custer City, was named in honor of the pioneer, of whom mention is made in the history of Bradford. As a settlement it is among the oldest in the western part of the county. The DeGolier Cemetery Association was incorporated in December, 1869, with M. Ingalsby, H. J. Hammond, Phil Shaffner, Aug. M. Cram, Michael K. Dexter and John K. Haffey, trustees. The United Brethren Church of DeGolier was incorporated April 12, 1888, with L. E. Cutting, Allen T. Foster, W. C. Freeman, M. Ingoldsby, G. W. Foster, Spencer Tibbits and H. E. Bryner, officials.

Howard Junction, near the south line of the township, is a lumbering village.


Throughout the pages devoted to general history and particularly those on the Bradford oil field, a good deal has been written relating to this capital of oildom. In the foregoing sketch of the township many names, inseparably connected with the early agricultural and lumbering interests of this section are given, so that little of the early history of the old village remains to be told. How often the Indians camped in this beautiful valley of the Tuna will never be learned any more than the history of the people who were here before them. How often the ancient Mount Raub was ascended by the watchmen of the tribes to give warning of the advance of hostiles of the same race, or to signal the approach of friends, as they turned the distant valley curve, can never be known, but enough has been told by the Cornplanters to point out the fact that Indians hunted here before the coming of Seneca or Delaware, and that the valley, from Foster Brook to Marilla Creek, on the west branch, and Rutherford Run on east branch, was a favorite site for their camps. As told in the third chapter, remains of ancient settlement were unearthed a few years ago.

From 1823 to 1827 the pioneers of a new race appeared on the scene. Dr. William M. Bennett, after whom Bennett's Branch is named, the Pikes, Farrs, Scotts, Fosters, Beardsleys, Harts, Dollops and Fishers came into the beautiful wilderness. This immigration took place almost a quarter of a century after Robert Morris, of Revolutionary fame, lost his title to lands here, leaving them to revert to the Binghams. The Hart family, fourteen members, settled on the site of Bradford in about 1827. For years they held possession of the Forks, welcoming new comers and hailing new settlers. They saw a thriving village built up north of them at Tarport, and south of them the DeGolier settlement was winning recruits; but their chosen spot was merely a mark in the forest.

In 1837 Col. Little purchased 250,000 acres in and around Bradford, and built a log house. In 1838 the village was surveyed, and named Littleton. In 1851 a large tract was sold to Daniel Kingsbury by the United States Land Company, and to that year we must look back for the first faint beginnings of the city, though not until 1858 did the new proprietor make a determined effort to build up the place. Thirty-two years ago the name Littleton was cast aside, and the present name chosen. Messrs. Kingsbury and Haffey established a newspaper to aid in building up a village; Old's tannery, the mills, stores, schools and religious societies referred to in Judge Ward's reminiscences were all here sharing in the hopes of Kingsbury; but all their efforts were rewarded with very limited results, the mercantile and manufacturing interests named in the history of the township being the only material response. During the Civil War the oil fever penetrated the valley, and new hopes were built up, only to be cast down; after the war, a series of disappointments waited on the attempts to find oil; but amid all such reverses men came and remained, a few of whom in after years, took a foremost place among those to whom the honor of developing the resources of this section is credited. They decided to carve out for themselves a home in this valley and fashion out a city in the forest, which would one day be regarded as the goal of enterprise, where scholars would find a home and religion 10,000 adherents. They built well! Only a few years of hope deferred, and a city sprung out of the ancient forest, extending from hill to hill, and stretching down the valley. In 1873 the people asked for borough government, and the demand was granted. Within three years the locality was filled with busy men, and the oily ocean was yielding up its wealth of petroleum; the forest fell, and in its place hundreds of houses and a thousand derricks grew up, as it were.

In 1880 eight large brick buildings, including the Riddell House, and 500 frame buildings were erected; the swamp was reclaimed and a number of new streets laid out.

Col. A. K. McClure, of the Philadelphia Times, visited Bradford in May, 1883. In his description of the city, he says: "The houses as a rule are pitched together like a winter camp, with here and there a solid brick edifice to mock the make-shift structures around it. The oil exchange is a beautiful building, and looks as if it was expected that oil gambling would continue, even after the day of doom, regardless of the shifting of oil centers. * * * Oil is just now on a boom. Everybody talks oil, and the visitor must talk oil or endure the unconcealed pity of all around him. Oil had struck somewhere about $1.12 on Tuesday. * * * They sold oil by the million of barrels, without a speck in sight, and with only a small percentage of margin money to give substance to the hazard. Five million barrels, and even more, are sold in a day, and speculators make one day to lose the next. * * * The one thing that the people of this great center of oildom pride themselves upon is their hospitality. They are, as a community, a broad gauge, manly, generous people, with little affection and much merit"

The first public observation of Decoration Day at Bradford was that of May, 1876. On May 13 a subscription list (now in possession of F. S. Johnson) was circulated, and thirty persons paid $2 each to aid in defraying expenses. The first subscribers were Ezra Holmes, E. F. Clark, John McGill, Joseph A. Hughsto, E. J. Carew, George Wright & Co., G. A. Berry, A. L. Hughes, J. E. Butts, Jr., J. Moorhouse, H. J. Pemberton, D. E. Matteson, J. H. Norris, Ed Dolan, A. DeGolier, J. K. Haffey, C. S. Whitney, L. C. Blakeslee, G. D. H. Crooker, J. Amm, P. T. Kennedy, P. M. Fuller, F. W. Davis, L. Emery, Jr., A. B. Walker, P. L. Webster, E. Parsons, Bell Bros., F. S. Johnson and J. C. Jackson. The oration was delivered by R. C. Beach, on the public square, and the cenotaph erected there.


The Bradford House, valued at $10,000, and one of the first buildings there under the rule of progress, was burned May 30, 1868. The oil fire, one mile from the center, of June 13, 1876, arose from lightning setting fire to the gas from the Olmsted Well No. 1, on the Sandford Farm. It communicated with the McKean County pipe line tank, then with the P. C. L. & P. Company's tank, P. T. Kennedy's mill, Prentiss & Co.'s tanks, Jackson & Walker's well and tank, J. B. Farrel's well, forty empty wooden car tanks of Prentiss & Co., and Riley's dwelling, the total loss being placed at $90,000.

The fire of November 15 and 16, 1878, destroyed forty buildings, great and small, including the Riddell House, the machine shops and foundry of Bovaird & Seyfang, the planning mills and tank shop of Stewart, the United States Express Company's building, besides numerous stores, saloons, boarding houses, and shops of every description. The area burned over extended from Boylston Street on the north through and across Main Street to Corydon Street on the south, easterly to the Erie Railway track, and west on Main Street to Osgood's dwelling house on the north side and Burgess' green grocery on the south side. The total loss was placed at $150,000. The following list embraces the names of owners of destroyed buildings in the order of location on Main Street, looking east along that street: Fred Schutt's, where the fire was stopped, still standing; Hogan & McCartey's unfinished building; Dilaberto's barber shop; Keystone clothing store; Boyd & Dickson, drugs; Corbierre & Benson, billiards; cigar store and Brunswick saloon; Theatre Comique, where the fire originated; Union House; United States Express Office; George S. Stewart, planning-mill; office, occupied by Williams & Cushman, vitrified stone flues; Sanborn & Co.'s news room; Tinker's hardware store; Pierce House; Riddell House; Lockwood & Haggerty, bakery and confectionery; Osgood & Howard's, occupied by Misses Rogers, millinery; Osgood, owner, Mrs. Clark, occupant, boarding house (damaged, but fire stopped); Thompson & Co., feed and flour; Riddell House laundry; Johnson's, Ryder's, Shaw's and Mrs. Wentworth's boarding houses; Palmer's dwelling and grocery; Wallace Lawkes', scorched and damaged, but fire stopped; Kennedy's building (Brady, tenant); Newell's building; Bradley's oil well rig; Whitney & Wheeler's oil well rig and tank; Bovaird & Seyfang's boiler shop, damaged, but fire stopped; Seyfang & Bovaird's machine shop, consumed; planning mill, George S. Stewart; Oyster Bay, Pete Heaton; Bradford Ice Company's store room, ice melted; House That Jack Built; Bell Mahone's house; Bradley's oil and well rig, tank and two old buildings; the union and elevated railway depots were scorched, but saved. The fire did not cross the Erie track.

The fire of April 3, 1880, originated in the Sawyer House, in the room occupied by James Wilson, who was burned to death. Four acres of buildings were destroyed, the total loss being over $100,000. The following list of losses is taken from the Era's report of the fire; On the south side of Main Street, R. G. Wright & Co.'s grocery store, where the fire terminated on the west; loss on stock, $6,000; on building, $1,000; insurance, $4,500. John C. Holmes, wholesale liquors and cigars; loss, $9,000; no insurance; owner of building unknown; loss, about $3,000. Sawyer Bros' Saloon and Restaurant; loss on building and stock, $2,500; no insurance. Applebee & Rogers, grocers; loss on building and stock, $8,500; insurance, $4,300. Titusville House, T. McGoldrick; loss on building, $5,000; insurance, $2,500. Harvey Hill; loss on furniture, $500; insured. Academy of Music, John Nelson; loss, $18,000; no insurance. Philadelphia Oyster House, Irving Campbell, proprietor; loss, $1,500; no insurance. R. Michael, clothing, Academy building; loss on stock, $1,700; no insurance. Owney Williams, billiard room; loss, $200; insured; building owned by John H. Shaver; loss, $2,000. Rush Building; loss, $3,000; occupied by P. Hanlan, saloon; loss, $500. Stephen O'Leary, hotel; loss on building, $2,000; insurance, $450; on stock, $400; insured; occupied by Luther & Draper; loss, $600; no insurance. Thomas Bradley, building; loss, $1,000; fully insured; occupied by G. H. DeWitt, saloon; loss, $300; no insurance; goods partly saved. Italian fruit stand; goods partly saved. L. E. Dunton, watchmaker; loss, $200; goods partly saved. Billy Howard and Billy Rose, saloon; stock mostly saved; loss, about $100. Barber Shop; stock damaged by moving. Greenewald Bros., clothing; damage, $700; fully insured. A. Mayer & Co., liquors and cigars; damage by moving, $300; insured. Folwell & Mott, druggists; loss on building, $1,250; insurance, $500; on stock and fixtures, $550; no insurance. Whitlock, liquors; loss, $100.

On the north side of Main Street considerable damage was done by the intense heat and removal of goods. James Casey, liquors, $100; insured. McCarty, billiards, $100; insured. N. Lazarus, saloon, $70; insured. Borchert, Daggett & Co., $100; fully insured. T. Bradley, express office, $150; insured. A. & G. Hochstetter, loss, $50; insured. Daniel Clark, $150; insured. Nick Weiss, loss, $50; insured. On Webster Street, behind the Academy of Music, was Judge Newell's building and office, totally destroyed; loss, $1,500; fully insured. Bullis, meat market, loss on building and stock, $1,000; no insurance, as far as could be learned. J. W. Ruble, Washington House; loss on building, stock and fixtures, $2,000; insurance, $600. Mrs. P. McNamara, Corry House; loss on building and furniture, $2,000; insurance, $1,500. Amos Williams, Williams House; loss, $2,500; no insurance. Traveler's Home, owned by Whitman & Trainer; loss on building, $800; furniture, $200; no insurance; saved part of contents. Parker House, Lewis & Davie, proprietors; damaged by fire, $2,000; $1,000 on furniture; insured. McBean, from Tonawanda, N. Y. (old Frew House), in charge of C. A. Durfee; damage, $250; insured. Jamestown Bottling Works, damage, $150; insured.

The fire of May 31, 1880, originated in Wheeler's rig, in rear of the Parker House. Hostetter's Building, occupied by R. G. Wright & Co. as a storehouse, and the rig, were destroyed, and other buildings were damaged.

The central office of the United Pipe Lines was destroyed by fire June 22, 1882, the loss being placed at $20,000. The fire of December, 1882, destroyed Habenrig's Store on Mechanic Street and public square, the Hotel LaPierre, the Hotel Florence, and Irvin's livery stable.

The fire of June 19, 1884, destroyed the Burt House and three adjoining buildings. The burning of Mrs. Charles Reibley's bakery and hotel occurred July 11, 1884, when Mrs. Reibley, her two children and a Swedish girl was burned to death. A few months before Mr. Reibley was drowned in the Allegheny at Carrollton. The fire of December 19, 20, 1886, destroyed five buildings on Kennedy Street. The fire of January 11, 1889, destroyed the Palace Hotel nearly opposite the Riddell House, burning out P. P. Bateman, McEvoy Bros., A. F. Moore, Samuel Ames, J. Krienson, Ardizone Bros., J. B. Fox, A. Lino, I. Marks and others in the Durfey & Walshe buildings, and damaged the Greenwald Bros. stock.

A number of small fires are recorded, many of them occasioned by lightning, such as that which destroyed Park & Hazzard's rig. The great oil fires are recorded in the sketches of Foster and Keating townships, while a few belonging to this township are noted as follows: The glycerine explosion of September 15, 1878, on the farm of Jared Curtis, near Bradford, and opposite Toad Hollow, resulted in the destruction of the McIntyre Torpedo Company's magazine and the death of N. B. Pulyer, A. P. Higgins, C. Page and J. B. Burkholder. The oil fire of July 14, 15, 1880, at Custer City, Lewis Run and Coleville, caused by lightning, resulted in the burning of a 30,000 barrel tank belonging to the Acme Oil Company, and the destruction of three N. P. L. oil tanks at Custer City and other property in the Minard Run neighborhood. The Custer City fire of December 16, 1881, destroyed seven buildings, including the Straight House then conducted by William Dean.

The Bradford fire of November, 1889, originated in the Stewart Building on Main Street. The Bradford Stone Company lost $1,000; L. L. Higgins, $6,000; F. N. Merrian, $400, and George S. Stewart, $4,500. Insurance reduces the total loss to a few thousand dollars.

The fire of January 19, 1890, destroyed the Protestant Episcopal Church building on Chatauqua Place. The fire was assisted in its rapid progress by the Christmas evergreen trimmings, which had become dry and had not been removed since the services for which they had been put up to commemorate, and the flames thus reached the steeple, which afforded them an excellent draft. It was the universal remark that a fire was never seen to spread with so much rapidity and burn so fiercely as did this one. The fire of February 19, 1890, originated at 118 Pleasant Street, destroying the houses of John Hutchinson and Myers, and damaging that of James Gleason. The firemen worked like heroes to save the property, but their work was made slow and difficult by too much mud and too little water. McAmbley's lumber mill was totally destroyed by fire February 26, 1890, entailing a loss of $6,000.

Municipal Affairs

Bradford borough was incorporated February 28, 1878, and the first election held the last Friday in March. P. T. Kennedy was chosen burgess; P. L. Webster, assistant burgess; F. W. Davis, E. Parsons, J. Moorehouse, J. H. Matteson and A. T. Stone, councilmen; G. D. H. Crooker and James Broder, justices; W. Lord, constable; G. D. H. Crooker, with R. W. Davis and S. Emery, assessors; A. C. Switzer and P. Woodward, poor-masters; J. H. Hilton, A. DeGolier and G. D. H. Crooker, auditors; J. H. Matteson, H. S. Baker, P. T. Kennedy, W. J. Morrow, J. Moorehouse and E. D. Foster, school directors, and J. Moorehouse, treasurer. F. W. Davis was appointed clerk. A. DeGolier, John A. Evans and Loyal Ward were elected justices prior to 1878.

Borough elections were held February 17, 1874, when the following votes were recorded: Burgess: P. L. Webster, 33; P. T. Kennedy, 17, and A. K. Johnson, 2. Councilmen: A. DeGolier, 35; E. Parsons, 44; P. Woodward, 42; J. Moorehouse, 39; J. W. Morrow, 38; J. R. Pomeroy, 38, and Con Lane, 32. There were eleven other candidates, who received from one to nine votes. The school directors elected were E. D. Foster and P. L. Webster. Mrs. J. Colby and five other candidates received a nominal vote. In 1875 J. W. Brennan, A. C. Switzer and A. DeGolier were elected directors, the latter being succeeded, in 1876, by A. T. Lane and E. A. VanScoy. The council centennial year comprised P. L. Webster, C. J. Lane, J. A. Evans, F. W. Davis, A. C. Switzer and J. W. Brennan. A. DeGolier was chosen assessor; M. W. Wagner, auditor; W. Lord and P. Woodward, poor-masters; Samuel Emery, constable; Con Lane, inspector, and P. Woodward, judge of elections. A. DeGolier was appointed clerk.

The burgess' office has been since filled by the following named citizens: J. W. Brennan, 1875; :. T. Kennedy, 1876; J. H. Norris, 1877; J. M. Fuller, 1878. In February, 1879, the first city election was held. James Broder received 483 votes and P. T. Kennedy 222 for mayor; Will F. Jordan received a large majority for mayor in 1881; James Broder, 1883; P. M. Shannon, 1885; R. A. Dempsey, 1887; Edward McSweeney, 1889, and Loyal Ward, 1890, for three years. The assistant burgesses elected annually up to 1877 are named as follows: T. J. Melvin, 1875; P. L. Webster, 1876; H. Friedenburg, 1877.

In 1870 R.P. Miller was appointed clerk, serving until April 30, 1883, when James A. Lindsey was elected by the council, and has since held the office, except for nine months in 1887, when S. M. Decker filled the position.

In 1875 G. A. Crooker was treasurer; in 1876, C. J. Lane, succeeded in July by J. W. Brennan; F. S. Johnson, in 1877; L. G. Peck, in 1878. Treasurer Critchlow was elected in 1880.

In February, 1882, City Treasurer Critchlow was arrested on the charge of embezzlement, but on the 23d was discharged on common bail. On the 25th F. W. Davis was appointed treasurer. In May, 1879, Messrs. Daggett, McElroy and Logan were elected by council members of the first city board of health. In January, 1880, C. D. Webster was chosen city engineer. Buildings for the Johnson and Era Hose Companies were authorized, the Whitney Hose Company having been hitherto supplied with a building. The bondsmen of R. J. McMath, absconding collector, asked for the appointment of a collector for balance of taxes, and G. W. Moorehouse was appointed.

The officers of the city elected in February, 1890, are as follows: Mayor, Loyal Ward (R), who received 804 votes against 689 recorded for Gardner; city treasurer, R. T. Lain (R); city controller, M. Albert (R); city assessors, N. J. Stanton (R), George P. Booth (R), E. A. Boyne (R).

Select Council - J. L. Andrews (R), John P. Zane (R), Matt Ruddy (D), L. G. Howe (R), C. R. Harrington (R). Republicans, four; Democrats, one.

Common Council - F. A. Moore (R), Felix Steinberger (D). L. E. Hamslier (R), W. K. Laney (R), E. Quigley (D), Bert McAllister, (R), W. C. Kennedy (R), S. D. Weaver (R), Thomas A. Flynn (R), T. W. Roberts (R), Republicans, eight; Democrats, two.

School Controllers - C. A. Durfey (D), W. O. Neely (D), J. T. Jones (R), W. R. Weaver (R), H. H. Adeit (R), A. M. Mayer (D), W. A. Booth (R), A. Miller (R), Samuel Huff (R), M. D. Harris (R).

Constables - Thomas Osborne (D), George R. Gibbons (R), Thomas Fennerty (D), C. A. Sprecter (R), W. W. Tadder (R).

The vote by wards is recorded as follows

  • First Ward, First Precinct - Select council: Andrews (R), 77; O'Donnell (D) 66. Common council: Steinberger (D), 84; Moore (R); Ruble (D), 65; Hawkins (R), 53. School controller: Durfey (D), 77; Neely (D), 71. Constable, Osborne (D), 91; Hayes (Ind), 51. Assessor: Osborne, 89; Brinton (R), 50. Judge of election: C. M. Hendrickson (R), 68.
  • First Ward, Second Precinct - Select council: Andrews (R), 189; O'Donnell (D), 97. Common council: Steinberger (D), 158; Ruble (D),133; Moore (R.), 124: Hawkins (R.), 4. School controller: Durfey (D), four years, 180; Neely (D), two years, 148; Greenewald (R.), 30. Constable Osborne (D), 151; Hayes (Ind.), 94. Assessor: Osborne (D), 151, Brinton (R.), 80. Judge of elections: P. H. Gallagher (D), 152; H. K. Welch (R.) 58. Inspector of election: T. F. Mayer, 158; C. A. Dickinson, 55.
  • Second Ward, Select council: Zane (R.), 201; Sondheim (D), 89. Common Council: L. E. Hamslier (R.), 216; W. K. Laney (R.), 211. School controller: J. T. Jones (R.), 210; W. R. Weaver (R.), 210. Constable: Gibbons (R.), 206; B. F. Smith (D), 84. Inspector of election: W. B. Chamman, (R.), 204; J. H. Dibble (D), 84.
  • Third Ward - Select council: Ruddy (D), 207; Hockenberry (R.), 111. Common council: Quigley (D), 162; McAllister (R.), 150; Coffey (D), 158; Lucas, 151. School controller, Adsit (R.), 214; Mayer (Ind.), 163; Hager (D), 129; Wilcox (D), 71. Constable: Fennery (D), 191; Blair (R.), 124. Judge of election: M. W. Chaffee (D), 174; George Duffey (R.), 145. Inspector: Clarence Morrow (D), 175; C. Hill (R.), 142.
  • Fourth Ward--Select council: Howe (R.), 187; Flynn (D), 100. Common council: Kennedy (R.), 283; Weaver (R.), 131; Scott (D), 59. School controller: Booth (R.), four years, 288; Miller (R.), two years, 217; Davis (D), two years, 71. Constable: Sprector (R.), 288. County assessor Haggerty (R.), 215; Robbins (D), 71. Judge of election: W. F. Robinson (R.), 288. Inspector of election: N. J. Loveless (R.),.219; Frank Costella (D), 71.
  • Fifth Ward - Select council: Harrington (R.), 127; Rasch (D), 65. Common council: Flynn (R.), 429; Roberts (R.), 112; Murray (D), 87; Brooks (D), 52. School controllers: Huff (R.), two years, 121; Harris (R.), four years, 118; Walker (D), four years, 75; Mallick (D), two years, 70. Constable: Tadder (R.), 117; Harrigan (D), 70. County assessor: Gowdy (R.), 122. Judge of election: William Maginn (R.), 122; J. W. Slattery (D), 70. Inspector of election: John B. Pierson (R.), 120; W. Enches ((D), 72.

City Finances

Prior to 1887 there were two valuations of taxable property in the city, one for city purposes and one for county purposes. The valuation for county purposes was at least one third, and often one half, less than the valuation for city purposes. But it happened that the Supreme Court in 1886 declared the act of 1875 (the act under which two assessments were permissible) unconstitutional. This made it necessary to fall back to the county valuation as a basis for the city assessment in 1887, which brought the valuation down from $1,500,000 to $1,000,000.

The bonded indebtedness of the city, December 31, 1888,
as shown in Mayor Dempsey's address, is as follows:

  • Bonds issued December 1, 1881, to purchase old water-works, due December 1, 1891, $3,500; purchased by sinking fund commissioners, $1,000; leaving a balance outstanding of $2,500; cash in treasury, $1,157.04, which leaves a balance of $1,342.96 to be raised in three years, or $447.65 this year, together with interest, on $3,500 amounting to $210, making a total of $657.65.
  • Bonds issued May 1, 1883, for the erections of the city building and funding the floating debt, $17,000; purchased for benefit sinking fund, $1,900; leaving a balance outstanding of $16,000; cash in treasury, $8,431.37, which leaves a balance of $9,568.68 to be taken care of in four years, or $2,876.99 this year with interest on $17,900 amounting to $1,074, making a total this year for principal and interest of $3,450.99.
  • Bonds issued December 1, 1883, for building new water works, due December 1, 1898. Amount of bonds $20,000; cash in treasury, $2,381.20, leaving a balance to be paid in ten years of $17,618.80; in order to liquidate this we will have to raise this year $1,761.88.
  • Bonds issued December 1, 1883, due December 1, 1903. Amount of bonds, $25,000; cash in treasury to apply, $1,984.33; amount to be raised in fifteen years, $23,015.67; amount required to be raised this year, $1,534.37.

Total to be provided for this year.

Bonds due December 1, 1891, $657.65; bonds due May 1, 1893, $3,450.99; water bonds due December 1, 1893, $1,828.42; water bonds due December 1, 1898, $1,761.88; water bonds due December 1, 1903, $1,534.37; interest on water bonds, $3,900; all showing a total of $13,138.31.

The total assets of the city on January 1, 1889, were estimated at $141,885.27, of which the water works were said to be worth $102,000; the city building, $8,000, and fire department houses and outfits, $5,200.

The municipal act of May, 1887, was declared unconstitutional in 1888, and some difficulty in managing the affairs of the city ensued; but the act of 1889 remedied this, and in April, 1890, the city officers chosen in February, under this act, assumed their duties.

Police Department

The oldest police record dates back to 1879 when Thomas Murphy was chief, with Abel Edick, Nelson Morrell, John C. McCrea, S. H. Emmerson and Thomas McDonough, policemen. In 1880 John C. McCrea took Chief Murphy's place, and William Quirk and William McAndrews were added to the force. In July, J. D. Fiscus, J. W. Riley and S. W. Truck were added. On the 21st of this month no less than fifty-one arrests were made within houses of prostitution. The old officers may be said to have continued in service until 1887, when John Wilson, Cummings, and Bent and Hills were appointed, and Ed Ronan came in later, vice Wilson. In 1887 N. J. Stanton succeeded John C. McCrea as chief, and he was succeeded in April, 1889, by Thomas E. McCrea, chief, who along with William Rohne, Matthew Donahue and P. H. Donnelly form the present police force. The police docket, which was opened December 17, 1888, was filled up January 28, 1890. It contains 500 pages and represents about 1,500 arrests.

In years now gone forever the position of the police officer was no sinecure. Desperate men and even women came here at intervals. Even the obsequious Chinaman got into trouble in those days. In June, 1880, Wah Lee delivered a bundle of laundry goods to some girls on the island, who refused to pay him. He battled for repossession, but was driven to retreat, after leaving marks of his visit on the faces of the girls. Charged with assault, he was brought before Justice McClure, and after a ludicrous attempt to defend himself, was remanded for trial, and subsequently was punished.

The first murder ever recorded at Bradford was that of Major Ashton, a colored man, August 23, 1883, George Gordon, another colored man, being charged with the murder.

Fire Department

A movement to organize a hose company resulted in the formation of the F. S. Johnson Hose Company No. 1. This took place on August 2, 1877. The company was furnished with 1,000 feet of hose and a two-wheeled cart, by the borough. The hose house was on Barbour Street, in Whitney & Wheeler's old barn. Another barn located on the public square was used as a place of meeting. In the loft of that building the first needs of the hose boys were brought up and acted upon, with Frank Whalen in the chair. Later on the Johnsons fitted up a building on Pine Street and made their headquarters there. Their first fight with the fiery enemy was the conflagration which destroyed the old Bradford House. In recognition of their gallant services at this time the citizens purchased a carriage for them, and since that time they have played well their parts in saving life and property from the devouring element. Their present headquarters are in the city building. This company was incorporated March 7, 1881. The following is a list of the present officers. President, Thomas Blakely; vice-president, Thomas Osborne; recording secretary, B. McAllister; treasurer, George Carney; foreman, D. A. Ropp; first assistant foreman, Jacob Heckel; second assistant foreman, Charles Robbins.

One of the foremost organizers of the fire department was Mr. J. L. Andrews, who for several terms held the position of chief engineer. He helped to build up the department, and the fame of Bradford's excellent organization spread all over the country. Mr. Andrews laid the foundation for the Era Hook and Ladder Company, which was the second fire-fighting company organized in Bradford. This was in June, 1878. Mr. Andrews raised the money and went to New York and purchased the truck, which cost $1,000, and has served its purpose admirably. As a company for work the Eras are second to none in the State, and, as the name implies, "they are up with the times." They belong to the era in which we live. Headquarters, city building. The present officers are: President, H. H. North; vice-president, Charles H. Steiger; treasurer, Robert L. Edgett; secretary, Fred Humbert; financial secretary, Frank Levens; wardrober, Charles F. Genthner; foreman, Charles F. Genthner; first assistant, J. J. Hutchinson; second assistant, J. Disney.

Citizens' Hose Company No. 2 was organized November 27, 1878. Their first conveyance for carrying hose was a sleigh, the runners of which were made of bent pipe two inches in thickness. The motto of this hose company, semper paratus, is well sustained by their record in checking the ravages of fire. William M. Williams, now of Buffalo, was their first foreman. This organization has furnished the two latest chief engineers of the department, James E. Grainger, and the present incumbent, J. F. Campbell. Their headquarters are on Newell Avenue, near Webster Street. They are earnest and effective in their work. The present officers are: President, J. C. Greenewald; vice-president, Herman Frank; treasurer, M. Schaaf; recording secretary, Len Chadwick; financial secretary, J. W. Ruble; foreman, J. H. Burns; first assistant foreman, James Casey.

Whitney Hose Company No. 3 was organized November 12, 1878, and commenced a brilliant career with the Johnson's old pumper and 500 feet of rubber hose. They soon acquired a good footing, and established their headquarters on Barbour Street, where they now have a fine building and first class equipment. E. N. Southwick, who has been elected to the positions of first assistant and chief engineer, was presented by the company with a hat, belt and trumpet in 1880. The presentation was made by William McVeigh, foreman. These were his remarks: "Nate, here is something the boys got you - the speech will be ready next week." Nate was nearly overcome, but managed to say: "Much obliged, Bill; my speech will be ready at the same time." The Whitney boys are firemen of the "first water." The present officers are: President, W. B. Potter; vice-president, T. Whiting; secretary, James Bell; foreman, Thomas White; first assistant foreman, D. Smith; second assistant foreman, C. Hudson.

The Weaver Hose Company (independent) is an organization composed of employees of the firm of Emery & Weaver. They are well prepared for service, being backed up by the steamer "Lewis Emery, Jr." They are thorough firemen. The present officers of the Weaver Hose and Steamer Company are: President, M. B. Bailey; treasurer, C. D. Evans; secretary, Ed Caldwell; foreman, E. A. Guy; assistant foreman, G. F. Guy; engineer of steamer, John Doty.

The central Hose Company (independent) was organized in the fall of 1885, and since that time has accomplished good work in fighting fire. The majority of the members belong to the Central Iron Works and the Oil Well supply shops. They beat the record in a hose race in this city September 1 of the present year by running 100 yards in 31 seconds. They should join the department. The present officers are: President, H. W. Eaton, Jr; vice-president, W. J. Bovaird; recording secretary, J. M. Crawford; financial secretary, W. H. Zabnizer; foreman, C. S. Flick; first assistant foreman, S. H. Nightingale; second assistant foreman, J. J. Crosby.

The Falcon Hose Company is a Third Ward independent organization which is always ready to respond to an alarm. It was formed to protect property remote from the other companies' headquarters, and deserves encouragement.

The present officers of the Bradford Fire Department are: President, Herman Frank; vice-president, J. B. Fuller; secretary, M. Cohn; treasurer, J. C. Greenewald; chief engineer, J. Campbell; first assistant engineer, Bert McAllister; second assistant engineer, Harry Campbell.

The Bradford Exempts are firemen who have seen veteran service, and have retired on their laurels. They own a large and finely furnished building on Kennedy Street. They are firemen to the back bone. Their handsome quarters are a favorite resort. The parlors are furnished with pictures donated by citizens, and the floor is covered with a costly carpet. Here the Exempts meet and talk over old times. The Exempts have a striking parade uniform and always command the lion's share of the public attention. Mr. C. L. Wheeler has served as president since the organization of the company. The present officers are: President, C. L. Wheeler; vice-president, M. McMahon; secretary, George L. Blakeley; treasurer, J. C. Greenewald; foreman, J. L. Andrews; first assistant foreman, Thomas Osborne; second assistant foreman, Col. B. Adams; directors, J. W. Ruble, Arthur Colby, J. F. Campbell, T. C. Kelly.

Two steam fire engines, known as "L. Emery, Jr.," and "City of Bradford," are two fine machines that are useful adjuncts to the efficient fire department. The "Emery" steamer is housed in the rear of Emery & Weaver's Store, Main Street, and the "City of Bradford" is kept in the city building.

The Bradford Fire Police Brigade was organized in December, 1878. The object of the organization was to keep crowds from interfering with firemen while at work, and to stop the operations of thieves. While this company lasted much good work was accomplished in that line of duty. The fire police disbanded and sold their effects some months ago.

The United Hose Company No. 4 was organized March 25, 1879. This company was composed of men employed mostly by the United Pipe Line. They were originally organized to protect the pipe line property in the city, but were admitted to the department in July, 1879. Their record is a good one. This company disbanded a few years ago, much to the regret of all citizens.

Water Works

The Bradford Water-Works Company was incorporated in June, 1877, with C. S. Whitney, president; T. J. Melvin, treasurer; T. A. Hylands, secretary; A. W. Newell; Lewis Emery, Jr., Thomas Bradley and H. J. Pemberton, directors. The capital stock was placed at $7,000, which it was owned by fifty stockholders. In October, 1879, Fuller, Bayne & Whitney, representing the Water- Works Company, proposed to sell to the city for $17,951.66, if the annual rental would not be increased to $4,600, but a proposition by the city was accepted. As told in the pages devoted to the organization of the city, Bradford owns the present water-works system.

Light and Heat Companies

The Keystone Gas Company of Bradford was chartered in February, 1882, with J. B. Bradley, E. O. Emerson, E. C. Bradley, J. N. Pew and John A. Johnson, directors. The object was to supply gas and heat to the people along the summit from State Line southwest to Big Shanty, and to drill and pump oil wells. The Bradford Light and Heating Company, incorporated in June, 1879, offers additional advantages.

The Bradford Electric Light and Power Company purchased Thornton’s big rink building in October, 1889, and converted it into an immense electric light establishment. Among the incorporators are J. H. Rose, D. W. Robertson, W. C. Walker & Co.. D. Phillips and Potter & Wood.


The McKean County Bank was chartered May 13, 1857, with Solomon Sartwell, George B. Backus, John C. Backus, Samuel C. Hyde, Sylvanus Holmes, Samuel L. Casey, Wells D. Wallbridge, A. M. Benton and Daniel Kingsbury, directors, who were appointed to establish a bank at Smithport on a capital stock of $150,000. Contrary to the charter some of these financiers determined to locate at Bradford, and called a meeting to elect directors for June 8, at the office of Daniel Kingsbury. The Smithport stockholders protested, and had O. J. Hamlin prepare such protest. This was partially successful, for the wily bankers did pretend to have headquarters at Smithport for a time. In January, 1858, a certificate of stock was issued to Hannah L. Hamlin for two twenty-dollar shares in this concern. Samuel C. Hyde and and John C. Backus signed the certificate as commissioners, while Solomon Sartwell, Jr., was the third commissioner.

Col. Henry, in his reminiscences of this bank, states that “a long-legged, gander-heeled, old bank swindler from Rhode Island,with Timothy O. Grannis and one Deidrich, of Utica, N.Y., came to Smethport, bringing with them three or four boxes said to contain about $34,000 in specie. They interested Daniel Kingsbury and others in their plans, had a charter from the State, elected Kingsbury president, Grannis, vice-president, and Deidrich, cashier, and placed their bills in circulation. Kingsbury was ultimately left liable for large sums, while the cashier walked off with $75,000 in bills, but was captured and made disgorge.” The Bradford National Bank commenced business July 25, 1879, succeeding the Bradford Bank (limited), CAPITAL $100,000. The first board of directors were as follows: W. C. Allison, T. E. Allison, James O’Neill, G. A. Berry, R. F. Borckman. The following were the officers: R. F. Borckman, president; O. F. Schonblom, vice president; J. F. Merrill, cashier; J. F. Thompson, assistant cashier. On January 8, 1884, the management changed. The following being the new board: O. F. Schonblom, P. T. Kennedy, W. C. Kennedy, G. A. Berry, S. G. Slike, with O. F. Schonblom, president; P. T. Kennedy, vice-president; T. H. Tomlinson, cashier; J. M. Fink, assistant cashier. On January 13, 1885, the management changed as follows: P. T. Kennedy, O. F. Schonblom, W. C. Kennedy, H. F. Whiting, R. J. Straight, with the following officers: O. F. Schonblom, president; P. T. Kennedy, vice-president; T. H. Tomlinson, cashier; C. A. Mitchell, assistant cashier. The above named have all remained in office except the cashier, of which office S. P. Kennedy is now incumbent. On September 21, 1886, the capital was increased from $100,000 to $200,000 and the surplus is $40,000.

On March 6, 1888, about 11 A.M., while several customers were transacting business, a man. wearing a mask and a long rubber coat, entered the front door of the bank. Approaching the cashier’s window, he presented a revolver, and ordered the official to open the door. Without pausing, he rapidly walked a short distance toward the rear of the bank, and suddenly sprang over the seven-foot railing,landing directly behind the paying teller. So quickly was this done that the attention of the teller, who was engaged in checking out a deposit, was not attracted. Mr. Tomlinson had apparently kept an eye on the man, and as he vaulted over the partition the official started from his post and met the robber, who instantly placed his revolver against the cashier’s abdomen and fired, the bullet passing entirely through his body. The desperado then turned on the paying teller, and, covering him with his revolver, drove him toward the rear of the room. Then seizing what money lay on the counter (about $600) he escaped through the cashier’s room and the front door of the bank. A crowd gathered and started in pursuit. After running a short distance the robber turned andfired upon Louis Bleich, who was in advance of the crowd, the bullet striking Bleich in the bowels and passing through his body. The robber continued his flight about 1,500 feet farther, when, apparently thinking escape impossible, he placed the revolver to his head and fired, dying almost instantly. The name of the desperado was George A. Kimball. He was formerly a resident of Bradford, but for some years had lived at Garden City, Kas. Several parties who have known Kimball are of the opinion that he was insane, but it was believed generally that the robbery was the well-planned act of a desperado.

The First National Bank is presided over by F. W. Davis (the successor in that office of J. M. Fuller), with C. C. Melvin, vice-president, W. W. Bell, cashier, and George H. Mills, assistant cashier. The directors are S. G. Bayne, D. O’Day, Joseph Seep, T. Wister Brown, Trust Company (Philadelphia), A. B. Walker, F. W. Davis, C. C. Melvin, J. M. Fuller and W. W. Bell. Among its stockholders may be named Byron D. Hamlin, Henry Hamlin, A. G. Olmsted, L. Emery, Jr., J. T. Jones, C. E. Hequembourg, L. E. Hamsher, C. M. Farrer, L. F. Lawton, S. Auerhaim, John Weiss, P. W. Roth, John McKeown, Robert C. Simpson, W. R. Weaver, F. D. Wood, Asher Brown, John Loy, P. L. Webster, Joseph Stettheimer, Robert Long, I. W. Shirley, A. Hochstetter, James E. Blair, A. B. Smith, Kenton Saulnier, E. T. Howes, J. D. Case. The capital is placed at $150,000 and the surplus at $90,000. The Tuna Valley Bank of Bradford, established in 1875-76, by Whitney & Wheeler, was forced to close its doors, owing to the fierce pressure brought to bear on financial houses during the year 1884. In February, 1886, the final dividend, with interest, was paid to creditors, and the honorable projectors were the only losers. The Commercial National Bank was opened in March, 1890, in the O’Donnell Building, on Main and Pine streets. The entire capital stock of $100,000 was easily disposed of, and the new bank started out with a solid backing, both in a financial and a patronizingsense. At a meeting held in January, 1890, the following officers were chosen: P. F. Borckman, president; C. H. Lavens, vice-president; W. H. Powers, cashier; R. L. Mason, assistant cashier and teller; C. H. Lavens, Alexander Urquhart, John R. Zook, J. C. Lineman, E. H. Barnum, J. H. Healey, R. F. Borckman, directors.

The People’s Building, Loan & Savings Association was organized at Elliot & Edgett’s office, July 18, 1889, when the following-named officers were chosen: W. W. Brown, president; George A. Sturgeon, treasurer; Roy W. Edgett, secretary; Silas G. Elliott, manager; Stone, Brown & Stur- geon, attorneys; board of appraisers: E. J. Boylston, A. T. Godfrey, James H. Roche, Frank W. Boss and C. M. Carr. At this time no less than 116 shares were subscribed for.

The Bradford Building & Loan Association is presided over by H. S. Southard, with H. H. North, secretary. The second series of stock was authorized to be opened February 2, 1890.

Oil Exchanges

The McKean County Board of Underwriters was organized some time ago, and presided over by E. V. Cody, with John Troy, of Olean, vice-president, Fred W. Groves, secretary, and William Haskell, treasurer. Oil Exchanges--The Tuna Valley Oil Exchange was presided over in January, 1877, by A. I. Wilcox, with Col. D. Gardner, vice-president, and C. Everson, secretary.

The Bradford Oil Exchange may be said to have been established March 19, 1878, when a meeting , over which C. L. Wheeler presided, considered the question of organization. A. J. Stephensen was secretary; J. M. Fuller, I. Emery, Jr., C. L. Wheeler, G. H. VanVleckand F. E. Boden, executive and building committee, and A. F. Kent, treasurer. Stock to the amount of $30,000 was at once subscribed, and in May plans by E. A. Curtis were adopted, and the old Johnson homestead on Main street, purchased for $10,000. The building contract was sold to Henry Shenk, who commenced work June 13, 1878, and completed the house in February, 1879, the total cost including lot being $44,000. Charles L. Wheeler, the first president, has been elected annually down to the present time. The officers of the Bradford Oil Exchange elected for 1890 are C. L. Wheeler, president; J. E. Haskell, vice-president; Winfield Scott, secretary and treasurer; J. B. Jayne, F. W. Davis, C. C. Melvin, F. L. Blackmarr, E. Boyer, W. R. Weaver, S. H. Durston, A. B. Walker, J. E. Cochran and John Denman, directors; F. H. Roberts, A. Thornton, F. P, Leonard, W. E. Gould and J. M. McElroy, arbitration committee; C. L. Wheeler, E. P. Whitcomb and J. T. Jones, conference committee; C. K. Thompson, judge of election; E. J. Boylston and I. G. Jackson, inspectors of election.

The Producers’ Petroleum Exchange was chartered in December, 1882, and early in 1883the inaugural meeting was held in Armory Hall, with 500 members, each of whom carried a $100 share. In June, 1883, a site for the Exchange building was obtained, and January 2, 1884, the house was completed and opened, David Kirk, the president, delivering the address. Messrs. McKevett, Williamson and Lockwood formed the building committee. Mr. Kirk, referring to the progress of the county, said: “Congressionally we are in the same condition. For six years of the ten at least we must continue to be the tail end of a wild-cat district. Politically we amount to no more to day than when the population of McKean county consisted of a few men in the lumbering camps of the wilderness. Our representatives must be held accountable. One of them, with a vulgar display of wealth, has tendered money instead of services.” The Association of Producers was organized June 11, 1884, with H. L. Taylor, president; David Kirk and W. J. Young, vice-presidents; F. W. Mitchell, treasurer; W. H. Johnson, secretary; John L. McKenney, John Satterfield, J. A. Cadwallader, W. W. Hague, F. T. Coast, J. T. Jones, B. Goe, W. R. Weaver, C. S. Whitney, J. S. Davis, F. W. Andrews, James Amm, W. J. Young and H. B. Porter, executive committee. A meeting was held August 21, 1884, when the secretary read the report on the “shut down” prepared by the executive committee, and with it the agreement, signed by 861 individual owners of wells or representatives of firms, while the total number of wells in the Bradford district, connected with the National Transit and the Tide Water Lines, was 13,328.

The Producers’ Protective Association elected the following named officers September 3, 1889: T. W. Phillips, of New Castle, president; H. L. Taylor, of Buffalo, vice-president; James R. Goldborough, of Bradford, secretary; R. J. Straight, of Bradford, treasurer. The association was organized two years before this date, and is credited with introducing the new era of prosperity in the oil fields.

The W. P. Driven Protective Association was organized at Bradford in 1883, with A. J. Edgett, president; Dr. M. A. Todd, secretary; A. DeGolise, treasurer; P. T. Kennedy, C. C. Melvin and James E. Blair, executive committee. Post-office--In 1879 W. F. DeGolier was postmaster at Bradford. His direct salary was $2,300, with $1,500 allowance for clerk’s hire. During the first quarter of the year 1879 money orders for $31,000 were issued, and $5,800 woth of stamps sold. In March, 1885, the citizens of Bradford petitioned for the extension of the free-letter delivery system. The petitioners were given an idea of the mills of the gods, for the department devoted fourteen months to the consideration of their prayer. The present postmaster, C. B. Whitehead, took possession of the office May 28, 1886, and within thirty days the welcome letter-carriers were distributing letters among the people. In 1887 the volume of business was far in excess of any prevailing year, and an increase in business marks every month since that time.


The Riddell House was sold in November, 1881, by Dr. George Riddell, to Chamberlain & Gelm for $40,000. The Doctor built a large frame house in 1878, on part of the site of the present structure. Late that year it was swept away by fire. In 1879 the present house was built by him. Anderson & Co. purchased Chamberlain & Gelm’s interests; Mitchell & Anderson bought the house from them on July 23, 1885; F. P. Holley purchased Mitchell’s interest, and in 1887 he became sole owner. The Riddell is a first-class hotel, admirably managed.

The St. James’s Hotel, at the head of Main street, near the exchanges, banks, newspaper offices and leading business houses, is equally as well managed as the Riddell House. The building is quite modern, and the location unexcelled. The Henderson House comes next in importance. It is a most popular hostelry, and well conducted. The hotel is a large building, one block from Main street, but near the business center, the churches and schools, and convenient to the railroad depots. The American House is spoken of with favor by visitors from various sections of the Bradford field; while several other houses have their admirers, leading one to suppose that thecity knows no such thing as a poor hotel.

In January, 1847, Sabines Walker petitioned the court to grant him a license for keeping a house of entertainment in his dwelling on Tunuanguant creek, where the Smithport and Ellicottville road passes. In January, 1848, Sylvanus Holmes asked license for this house. For about thirty years Bradford and neighborhood were happy in the old-time inns referred to by Judge Ward, and when the modern inns came to replace them, fire swept away a few of the new institutions, as related.


In the reminiscences of Judge Ward, references are made to the early schools of Bradford. In 1877 the old school building became the property of the Catholic church, and on its site stands the present St. Bernard’s church and convent schools. At that time the common-school system of the city placed the foundation stone of its present greatness.

In his first report to the State superintendent in 1882, George F. Stone, the superintendent of the city schols, said: “In submitting my first report of the condition of the schools of the city of Bradford, you will permit a reference to the peculiar difficulties with which our city in its infancy has labored. Within seven years our school population has increased more than twelve fold, and the number of schools in like proportion. It has been found necessary to erectwithin the last two years three school buildings, furnishing accommodations for thirteen schools, and during the present vacation another building has been enlarged to accommodate two additional schools.”

In 1882 there were in the city twenty-one schools, employing twenty-six teachers. The average attendance was 1,037 and the average percentage was ninety-two. The total amount of tax levied for school and building purposes, $39,649.21. In 1883 the number of schools had increased to twenty-four, the number of teachers to thirty-five, and the average attendance had swelled to 1,080. The sexes were about evenly divided. In this year the total tax was $29,488.46. During the school year endingJune 2, 1884, the capacity of the schools was again severely tested, and a new brick building was erected on Congress street. This structure contains a library, a laboratory and a printing office. In this year the number of schools swelled to thirty-two, employing thirty-eight teachers, with an average attendance of 1,166. The total amount of taxes levied was $27,578.48. In 1885 the schools were not increased. The number of teachers employed was thirty-nine, and the average attendance was 1,300. The total amount of the tax levy was $38,091.07.

In the spring of 1886 the central school building was destroyed by fire. It was replaced by a larger and more commodious structure. In this year there were thirty-four schools, which gave employment to thirty-nine teachers. The average school attendance was further increased to 1,315. The tax levy was $31, 287.48. In 1887 there were thirty-one schools, employing thirty-five teachers. The enrollment consists of 912 males and 968 females, a total of 1,880. The average daily attendance is 1,387, and the average cost of each pupil $1.03 per month. The total amount levied for school and building purposes is $27,180.74. In 1888, phenomenal progress was reported. In June of this year, the discussion on the question of the superintendant’s salary created a stir in school circles and brought from the superintendant a letter of which the following is a copy.

Bangor, ME., June 22, 1888

TO THE BOARD OF SCHOOL CONTROL, BRADFORD, PA. As I read in the Era of to-day that I have been charged with disloyalty to the schools of Bradford in advising teachers to ask higher salaries elsewhere, and thus oblige the Bradford board to increase them; also, that the public are dissatisfied with the increase made in my salary, I again ask the Bradford board to release me from my engagements for another year. A superintendant may be found whose desire for a position may be so great that he will be willing to keep silent when he is unjustly accused. Fortunately my opportunities in life are so many that I am not so placed. I again thank the Board for the uniform courtesy I have received at their hands.

Respectfully, ELLA M. BOYCE

The lady did not lose her position; on the contrary her salary was advanced and in July, 1889, the following assignment of teachers was made, which was adopted by the board: Central Brick Building: Anna McBride, principal; Helen M. Biscoe, first assistant; Oriana Wycoff, principal; Christina Miller, assistant; Sarah Bruce, Sallie Hamor, Luella Harris, Bessie Johnson, A. Haggerty, A. Herrick.--Annex: L. Heard, M. Silberberg.--Synagogue: Bertha James.--Central Wooden Building: Helen Shepard, Miss Angell, Annie Miller, K. Murphy, J. Simons, H. Horton, B. Huff, M. Brown--Third Ward: Belle Minard, Nellie Lewis, Cleora Prosser, L. Morton, S. Lewis, Francis Wann--Fourth Ward: Jennie Benninger, Della Neely, H. Mason, A. Brennan--Fifth Ward: M. Wann, M. Mead, H. A. Brown, I. Blanchard.

The actual expenses were, for the year ending June, 1889: Salaries of superintendant and teachers, $16,559; of secretary and librarian, $411; of janitors, $1,242; fuel and contingencies, $1,078; supplies, $823; miscellaneous, $339; total, $20,452. Late in the fall of 1878 the work of erecting the schools attached to St. Bernard’s Church was begun, and school opened in them in September of the following year, the services of the Sisters of St. Joseph having been secured as teachers in the same. Yje maintenance of these schools is quite a heavy burden upon the congregation. These schools are free to all. There are some three hundred pupils upon the school roll, who are instructed and well grounded in all the primary branches without any expense to the taxpayers of the city. Of her educational advantages Bradford has good reason to be proud. The public school sysytem is very nearly perfect, and the advanced methods, the thorough training, and the excellent discipline by which they have been distinguished, have drawn to their cordial support a class which in other cities depends almost wholly upon private schools. The newspapers of the city are, however, the great practical educators.


The First Baptist Church is contemporary with the first settlement at Bradford. In 1840 Rev. N. E. Chapin had an appointment as missionary pastor, preaching in what was known as Col. Little’s house, near the present oil exchange. The Regular Baptist Church of Bradford was organized under State laws in September, 1852, with Enos Parsons, Truman Sherman, W. F. Peckham, E. C. Olds, James DeGolier, C. Storms and Edwin Colegrove, trustees. In 1874 the church was reorganized under the labors of State Missionary Stowell, and T. J. Knapp, of Parker, became pastor in June, 1878. His labors were continued until July. 1879, when he resigned. The church was left pastorless until February, 1880, when Rev. Alfred Rose, of Westfield, N.Y., accepted a call. The society was organized under legal form in December, 1880, and the constitution signed by the following members: W. W. Brown, T. J. Powers, F. Z. Trax, P. T. Kennedy, W. H. Dennis, M. S. Cody, C. P. Cody, E. B. Chapelle, Alfred Rose, W. H. Powers, E. Crossman, Clara Prosser, Jessie Browne, Jennie E. Rose and D. DeGolier. Among the trustees were Isaac Jones and A. K. Johnson. Services were held in the Opera House and other places until January 16, 1881, when the present house was dedicated. In April, 1882, Mr. Rose resigned, and in May following was succeeded by Rev. W. R. Baldwin, who served until February 15, 1884. At this time, the church numbered 125 members,and was carrying a debt of $8,000. On August 1, 1884, Rev. James P. Thoms, of Cazenovia, N. Y. began his pastorate. The Methodist Church of Tunuanguant was incorporated in July, 1848, with John F. Melvin, John O. Beardsley, Absolam Hutchinson, Seth Scott, Thomas Dollof, William Beardsley, Daniel Warner, William R. Fisher, H. Webb, L. W. Fisher and A. S. Wheaton, stockholders and subscribers.

The First Methodist Church of Bradford was incorporated May 30, 1878, with Loren G. Peck, J. H. Harris, A. DeGolier, H. S. Baker, L. B. Blakeslee, A. W. Newell and John Brown. The object of legal association was to acquire property and build a house of worship. For many years before this an organization existed in Bradford, but regular services were not commenced under theauspices of such organization until October, 1876, when Rev. J. A. Copeland was appointed pastor. Until March, 1887, the Opera House was used for public worship. At that time their new church was completed, which has since been enlarged. Mr. Copeland was succeeded in 1879 by C. W. Cushing, D. D., and in 1882 by Rev. D. W. C. Huntington, D. D. The membership of the church at present is over 500, and the average attendance at the Sunday-school is almost 400, under the care of fifty-five officers and teachers. Rev. G. Chapman Jones concluded a four-year term as pastor in September, 1889. At that time he reported 553 members and thirty probationers. Mr. Huntington was reappointed in the fall of 1889.

The First Congregational Church of Bradford was organized in May, 1884, with T. Lambert, V. Waggoner, W. W. Norton, E. D. Norton, M. C. Fuller, C. D. Webster and E. S. Niles, trustees. Samuel Porter and P. L. Webster, with the trustees, signed the petition for incorporation.

The Bradford Meeting-House Association was incorporated June 21, 1871, with P. L. Webster, J. E. Blair, T. W. Cole, Benjamin Jewett, ThomasJ. Melvin and Abram K. Johnson, trustees. The society was formed to control the property of the Congregational Church, vice E. D. Norton, A. E. Johnson and F. Newell, the trustees of the old Congregational society of 1853-54, of Littleton Village, who were acting in 1866.

The Universalist Church was organized here early in the “fifties,” as told in the sketch of Editor Haffey, but meetings were irregular. In later days services of this denomination have been held here.

St. Bernard’s Church. Previous to the discovery of oil in the northern field there was no resident Catholic pastor in Bradford. The few members of that denomination located at this point and in the immediate vicinity were occasionally visited by a priest from Newell creek, and among the first to thus visit them was Very Rev. J. D.Coady, now pastor of St. Titus Church, Titusville. His field of missionary duty, though extensive in respect to territory, embracing, as it did, the counties of McKean, Potter, and parts of Elk, was, however, limited in respect to numbers. The summer of1877 witnessed the climax of the oil excitement in this section; people began to flock to it from every point of the compass, and Bradford grew rapidly from a mere hamlet to a full-fledged city. It was in the fall of this year that Rev. William Coonan, present pastor of St. Bernard’s Church, was appointed by Bishop Mullin, of Erie, to look after the spiritual wants of the Catholic population, and build up the church. After some debts, which had been contracted previous to his taking charge, were satisfactorily adjusted, imediatepreperations were made for the erection of a suitable church edifice. Heretofore the little congregation had worshiped in what used to be the old village school house, which, together with the grounds attached, they had purchased, and upon which the present church parsonage and schools are erected. In the spring of 1878 the present church, 44x100 feet, was commenced, and was occupied the following December, though not dedicated until the summer of 1879, at which time it was almost completely paid for. The school buildings were begun in the fall of 1878, and opened by the Sisters of St. Joseph in September, 1879. In 1881 the Catholic cemetery was established on the Brown farm, one mile southwest of the city. Work on the proposed large brick and stone church will, it is said, commence in the spring of 1890.

The First Presbyterian Church of Bradford was incorporated in June, 1879, the following named having hitherto signed the constitution: Theodore Ladd, C. D. Webster, A. M. Davis, C. H. Hoffman, A. L. Kinkead, J. M. Armstrong, R. G. Williams and William M. Boggs. Among the directors were Bernard Hook and W. J. McCullough. The society was originally organized June 19, 1872, with twenty-four members. For more than two years the congregation was without a regular place of worship, during which time services were held in Wagner’s Opera House, the Universalist Church, the Academy of Music and other places. In the fall of 1875 the lecture room of the church was completed, and a place was thus provided for the services. The church edifice itself was not finished until the following spring. On May 30, 1880, the church was dedicated, $5,000 being raised on this occassion to pay for the same. The falling autumn the excellent pipe-organ, which is still in use, was purchased at the cost of $1,600. Rev. R. G. Williams, now of Nelson, Pena., was the forst pastor of the church from May, 1879, until May, 1882. The church is now in connection with the presbytery of Buffalo by the general assembly. On September 4, 1889, Bryan resigned his office as pastor after seven years’ service. During that period, $51,172 were collected for missionary and church purposes. Rev. M. J. Eccles came in February, 1890.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Ascension petitioned for incorporation May 27, 1880. The signerswere W. W. Mason, A. B. Putnam, L. C. Blakeslee, W. F. Crane, I. Beam, J. A. Ege, S. L. Wilson, J. R. Matlock, S. H. Durston, T. L. Shields, E. F. Willetts, A. C. Scott, J. F. Merrill, Peter T. Kennedy, C. L. Wheeler, Ed R. Shephard, Lynford Lardner, C. A. Seigfried, H. G. Cutting and F. Winslow, of Bradford, with C. A. Comen and W. N. Hanns. of Kendall. The Rouseville, Penna., church building was moved to Bradford, rebuilt, and was used up to January 19, 1890, when it burned. The society proposes to erect a new building this year.

The United Brethren Church is one of the modern religeous organizations of the city. The membership is small, but flourishing. Beth Zion Congregation was incorporated in December, 1880, with Jacob Olshoffsky, Phillip Nusbaum. Alexander Simpson, Moses Ruslander and A. M. Mayer, trustees. The names of S. Auerhaim and Asher Brown also appear on the record. A temple was erected on South Mechanic street, and dedicated in the spring of 1881. The services are conducted according to the reform principles of modern Judaism. This is to say, prayers and sermons in the English language are connected with the Hebrew ritual. Rev. Samuel Weil has been the Rabbi ever since the founding of the congregation. The congregation numbers forty members, besides many seat-holders. The Rabbi conducts, besides the Sabbath-school, a day school in which Hebrew and German are taught.

The First Bradford Orthodox Hebrew Congregation was incorporated in March, 1881, with F. Freidman, David Levi and Isaac Nusbaum, trustees. The petition was signed by Joseph Rosenberg, H. Cohn, Dan. Silberene, Raphael Michael, B. Jacobs and L. Graff.

The African Methodist Church was organized in the spring of 1880 by Rev. Mr. Cyrus. The following fall Rev. R. H. Jackson was appointed to this charge, and for three years served the church in the capacity of pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. R. H. Henderson, who, after serving for two years, was succeeded by Rev. S. H. Lacey in a pastoral service of one year. Rev. C. H. Brown was then appointed. The highest number of members in connection with the church at any one time is seventy-two, the lowest reported membership, thirteen.

The Swedish Church was incorporated September 4, 1888. The congregation, like others of this faith in the southern townships of McKean county, pushes forward valiantly to gain a place among the old religious societies of the city.

Rev. Clim Gim, educated in the Lane Seminary for Presbyterian mission work, came to Bradford in 1881 to address Judge Ward’s Sunday-school class of Chinese pupils.

Ben Hogan, referred to in the history of Tarport, is now an Evangelist. The following concerning this extraordinary man is taken from a local paper:

Ben Hogan, old-time gambler, cracksman, confidence man, bounty jumper, divekeeper and pugilist, who left the oil country eleven years ago with the reputation of being the wickedest man in the world, is back again after his long absence, going from town to town, visiting his old haunts, greeting his old friends, and--preaching to them the gospel! Packed houses greet him, and although crude, ungrammatical, and with a vocabulary not at all extensive, he holds the interested attention of ignorant and cultivated alike with the forceful and rudely eloquent recital of his past adventures, and the story of his marvelous conversion.

As he looks from the platform he can see the faces of many of his old patrons--the man who drank his liquor at Pithole, the habitue of his dancehouse at Babylon, the ex-oil prince who spent his $100 a night on board the infamous “floating palace” at Parker’s Landing, and the driller who patronized his place at Tarport. They all come to hear Ben preach the gospel. For how many men does the whirligig of time work such wonders as it has for Ben Hogan, Evangelist?


About fifty-seven years ago three acres were donated to the settlers of Littleton for a free burial ground. The tract was located on Kennedy street. In the winter of 1880-81 the cemetery on the Tarport road was opened. The Oak Hill Cemetery Association of Bradford was incorporated in December, 1883, with W. R. Weaver, Enos Parsons, C. C. Melvin, P. M. Fuller and P. L. Webster, stockholders. In 1881 the Catholic cemetery on Washington street was opened. This is located on the H. Brown farm, one mile southwest of the city.


The project of establishing a hospital was first started by Gen. Kane. He recognized the necessity for an institution of that kind to care for persons disabled in the oil field; and in April, 1881, the McKean County Relief Society was organized and incorporated. A hospital was to be erected on Mount Raub, but on account of the General’s death the project was abandoned. Rev. D. B. Wilson, well known for his charities, next revived unterest in the matter, but before his plans could be properly carried out he died, in 1885. The Bradford Hospital Association was incorporated August 4, 1885, on petition of the following named supporters: H. F. Barbour, M. B. Pierce, A. L. Weil, P. M. Shannon, L. Emery, Jr., H. W. Eaton, R. B. Stone, Edward Bryan, J. T. Jones and M. McMahon. By public and private donations and entertainments the hospital fund grew, and that worthy institution was placed upon a substantial footing. The hospital was opened in May, 1887, and placed under the direction of Mrs. M. Krider, matron.


In the order of Masonic advancement and organization, the Blue Lodge comes first under consideration. Union Lodge No. 334. Up to the year 1858 there was not a lodge of Free and Accepted Masons within the borders of McKean county, and there was none nearer than Warren, known as North Star Lodge No. 241. In that year a number of Masons living in the village decided to form a lodge. The consent of North Star Lodge No.241 having been given, the following brethren petitioned the grand lodge of Pennsylvania for a warrant of contitution: Samuel Boyer, Montour Lodge, 168, N.J.; Nelson Parker, North Star Lodge 241; G. F. Peckham, Ellicottville Lodge, 307, N.Y.; William Beardsley, Ellicottsville Lodge, 307, N.Y.; J. L. Savage (lodgenot given); Joseph Marsh, North Star Lodge, 241; Jonathan Marsh (lodge not given); J. C. Ackley, Brownville Lodge. At a quarterly communication of the grand lodge, held March 7, 1859,the warrant of constitution was granted for a lodge in the village of Bradford, Penn., to be known as Union Lodge No. 334, signed by the following grand officers: Henry M. Philips, R. W. G. M.; John Thompson, D. G. M.; David C. Sterrett, S. G. W.; Lucius H. Scott, J. G. W.; Peter Williamson, grand treasurer; William H. Adams, grand secretary. On August 3, 1859, the lodge was duly constituted, and on that day held its first meeting. The first officers were Samuel Boyer, W. M.; Nelson Parker, S. W.; George F. Peckham, J. W.; Wilson Beardsley, secretary; Jasper Marsh, treasurer; J. S. Savage, S. D.; J. C. Ackley, J. D. The following have served as masters of the lodge: George F. Peckham, S. Boyer, A. K. Johnson (three years), William Burton, H. W. Glass, T. H. Stock, Nelson Parker, George T. Keith, L. B. Prosser (two years), G. D. H. Crooker (two years), James Broder, J. W. Brennan, F. W. Davis, T. J. Melvin, James E. Blair, F. P. Wentworth, E. D. Matteson (two years), C. L. Wheeler, E. A. Boyne, D. S. Kemp, Walter Grubb, William K. Laney. The officers of the lodge in 1889 were A. D. Sloan, W. M.; James M. Stevenson, S. W.; Henry Trumbower, J. W.; Lewis C. Longaker, treasurer; C. P. McAllister, secretary; and in 1890, J. M. Stevenson, Henry Trumbower, S. R. Dresser, C. L. Wheeler and C. P. McAllister. C. L. Wheeler is district deputy grand master of the Twenty-second District of Pennsylvania, comprising the counties of McKean and Potter. Up to 1875 the lodge grew in numbers but moderately. At that time the remarkable growth of the city set in and the lodge felt the effects of it in an increased prosperity and interest. The lodge has now a membership of 240, and its members not only comprise many of the leading and best citizens of Bradford, but are scattered all over the land, in almost every State and Territory. The lodge is also in a flourishing condition, financially, being out of debt and having $2,000 in property and invested funds. Applications for membership are received at nearly every meeting, and the total inadequacy of the present lodge room to accommodate comfortably one-half the membership has made the building of the new Temple a necessity. There were 225 members in March, 1890.

Bradford Chapter, R. A. M., No. 260. In the summer of 1880 a number of Royal Arch Masons residing in this city discussed among themselves the formation of a new chapter, and the result was an application to the grand chapter for a charter signed by the following companions as charter members: C. L. Wheeler, Joseph H. Simonds, W. R. Weaver, W. A. Rix, James Broder, J. C. Sturgeon, W. M. Keeler, C. D. Buss, W. H. Clarke, W. C. Husband, John Stinson, Michael Murphy, W. F. Jordan, E. P. Pooler, C. C. Melvin, Henry Trumbower. The charter was granted by the grand chapter, and on September 6, 1880, Bradford Chapter, R. A. M., No. 260, was constituted and the new officers installed. The occassion was one of great interest in Masonic circles for many miles around. The grand officers of the State were nearly all present and conducted the impressive ceremonies in the presence of a large assembly of chapter masons, including many distinguished men of high position and character. The first officers, of the new chapter, installed were Joseph H. Simonds, M. E. H. P.; William R. Weaver, king; William A. Rix, scribe; Charles L. Wheeler, treasurer; Robert T. Thompson, secretary. The chapter at once entered upon an era of unexampled growth and prosperity. At the end of the first year the membership had been increased to eighty-seven, at the end of the second year to 122, and at the end of the third year to 155. Since then the growth has been steady, and at the present date the roster numbers 210 companions, and the invested funds and property of the chapter amount to about $2,500. Following are the past high priests who have served in that capacity since the constituting of the chapter. Joseph H. Simonds, W. R. Weaver, W. H. Clarke, David S. Kemp, Philip M. Shannon, H. Trumbower, Elias Urquhart, Francis W. Sprague and E. F. Sawyer. This chapter elected the following named officers in December, 1889: F. J. Collins, H. P.; George W. Ashdown, K; James M. Stevenson, scribe; Charles L. Wheeler, treasurer; Charles P. McAllister, secretary, and F. W. Sprague, representative. The membership is now (1890) 200.

Bradford Council No. 43, R. & S. M. In the early part of January, 1888, a number of royal and select masters residing in Bradford met to consider the advisability of establishing a council of royal and select masters. At an informal meeting held February 9, 1888, it was decided to apply for a charter at the grand council meeting at Erie, Penn. On Friday evening, May 4, 1888, the grand council held a special meeting in this city, constituted Bradford Council No. 43, R. & S. M., and installed the following officers: F. J. Collins, T.I. G. M.; L. E. Mallory, D. I. G. M.; J. H. Youngs, P. C. of W.; C. L. Wheeler, Treas.; E. F. Sawyer, Rec. With the exception of P. C. of W., and recorder, the above officers were re-elected for this year. Companion Youngs and Companion Sawyer declined a re-election, and Companions D. C. Greenwald and C. P. McAllister were elected as P. C. of W. and recorder. The officers of this council elected in December, 1889, were L. E. Mallory, T. I. G. M.; S. R. Sheakley, D. I. G. M.; C. S. Hubbard, P. C.of W.; C. L. Wheeler, Treas.; C. P. McAllister, Rec.;J. B. Goldsborough, F. W. Sprague and J. W. Hogan, trustees. The membership is 147, or the third in strength in the State.

Trinity Commandery. No. 58, K. T. In the early months of 1881 the matter of instituting a Commandery of Knights Templar began to be discussed. Among the new residents of the city were many members of the order who had located inthe great northern field to stay, and they wanted a templar home. On April 30, 1881, a preliminary meeting of members of the order was held, and a petition for a dispensation forwarded to the grand commandery, with the following charter members’ names affixed: J. H. Simonds, C. L. Wheeler, Victor Gratter, Caspar Taylor, R. T. Thompson, James Broder, W. R. Weaver, A. C. Hawkins, J. M. McElroy, E. A. Drake, J. R. Goldsborough, C. H. McKevitt, J. B. Farrel, O. F. Schonblom, L. E. Hamsher, W. H. Bradley, Marion Henshaw, John Bird, Joseph Overy, W. L. Yelton, J. C. Sturgeon, H. Trumbower, T. B. Hoover,W. C. Hayes,D. S. Scoville, W. P. Shoemaker, John T. Farmer, W. H. Spain, F. M. Cole, W. H. H. Fithian, J. M. Stevenson, W. Warmcastle, M. A. Sprague, W. F. Kelley, D. F. Siegfried, John Eaton, J. B. Wheaton, W. C. Husband, H. C. Sanderson, Seymour Peck, W. H. Clarke, Alfred Smedley, Charles A. Bailey, J. E. Haskell, W. A. Rix, Frank A. Smith, W. F. Jordan, J. B. Fisher, John Stinson, A. B. Walker, Charles D. Buss, John C. Holmes, Enos O. Adams and Ed Goodwin. On May 13 the dispensation was granted, and on May 18, 1881, the first conclave of Trinity commandery was held, with the following officers: Joseph Simonds, eminent commander; C. L. Wheeler, generalissimo; Victor Gratter, captain-general; Casper Taylor, treasurer; Robert T. Thompson, recorder; John C. Sturgeon, prelate; James Broder, senior warden; William H. Clarke, junior warden; J. R. Goldsborough, standard bearer; William A. Rix, sword bearer; John Stinson, warder; W. H. H. Fithian, sentinel. At the meeting of the grand commandery in that same month the charter was duly granted and R. E. Sir George W. Kendrick, grand commander of the State of Pennsylvania, appointed Wednesday, September 28, 1881, for the constituting of Trinity Commandery, No. 58, K. T. The members of the new commandery resolved to make the occasion one long to be remembered, both as a social and Masonic event of the city, and they more than succeeded. The most elaborate preparations weremade, both for the reception of the grand officers and the entertainment of the guests of the occasion. The new commandery so auspiciously constituted increased rapidly in members, and soon ranked as one of the most vigorous and most ably officered and conducted templar organizations in the State. At the present time the membership numbers 198. The commandery has within the last few years lost many prominent members by death, among them the First Commander E. Sir Joseph H. Simonds, to whose earnest intelligent efforts are due more than to any other one man. the constituting of both the chapter and commandery, and their success and efficiency. Following are the post commanders in order of service: Joseph H. Simonds, Joseph M. McElroy, Charles L. Wheeler, Phillip M. Shannon, Winfield Scott Watson, James R. Goldsborough, Harry A. Marlin. The officers for 1889 were James R. Goldsborough, eminent commander; Henry F. Barbour, generalissimo; William R. Weaver, captain-general; Phillip M. Shannon, treasurer; W. H. H. Fithian, recorder. The officers for 1890 are H. F. Barbour, E. C.; W. B. Weaver, G.; F. J. Collins, C. G.; C. L. Wheeler, Treas.; and C. P. McAllister, Rec. The present membership is 200.

In the summer of 1889 the proposition to build a Masonic Temple was favorably received, and the lots on which the Roberts’ block was standing, purchased. The old building was removed and the elegant edifice erected. Mr. Curtis, of Fredonia, is the architect, and the Masonic Temple Association, with S. B. Dresser, president, W. R. Weaver, vice-president, and C. P. McAllister, secretary, had charge of its construction.

Tuna Lodge No. 411, I. O. O. F., was instituted June 4, 1877. The Past Grands of this lodge are W. H. Adams, C. W. Bartholemew, E. I. Baldwin,J. J. Cole, J. C. Greenewald, D. C. Greenewald, C. A. Huggins, Bernard Hook, F. E. Hinkley, J. G. Hann, Lee Kennedy, Dave Kibler, John Kelly, Ed. Kahn, D. C. Macon, A. G. Moulton, John Meyers, J. W. Platt, J. H. Ralph, E. N. Southwick, John Theetge, W. R. Weaver, F. Steinberger, V. E. Bryant and John Cummings. A. N. Heard has served as D. D. G. M. and R. A. Dempsey as secretary. The membership is about 100. McKean Encampment No. 266, I. O. O. F., was instituted June 18, 1884. The P. C. P.’s of this organization are W. R. Weaver, D. C. Greenewald, J. H. Ralph, J. C. Greenewald, James A. Lindsey, V. E. Bryant, John Cummings, W. H. Adams, E. G. Baldwin and John Myers. C. V. Cottrell has served as scribe, and J. H. Ralph as D. D. G. M. There are forty-five members with encampment property valued at $1,300.

Tuna Valley Lodge No. 453, K. of P., was instituted December 9, 1884, with the following named members: W. H. Malick, Sanford Gordon, F. S. Parker, G. R. Mabb, G. R. Watson, E. J. Chambers, H. Frank, E. T. Wright, J. S. Fritz, C. M. Carr, G. W. Willis, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Charles A. Bailey, J. A. Lindsey, N. A. Hollenbeck, P. Fragner, E. N. Robinson, L. M. Finney,M. A. Todd, J. A. Nelson, T. J. Beridge, T. J. Collins, C. H. Hogans, W. C. Leonard, G. B. McCalmont, John Slocum, J. E. Grainger, E. A. Durham. Following are the names of P. Cs: Thomas Fitzpatrick, H. Frank, Sanford Gordon, J. W. Willis, W. A. Hutcheson, S. M. Wilcox, H. M. Wilson, W. H. Malick, J. S. Fritz, A. D. Sloan, E. T. Wright, J. C. McCrea, M. H. Fitzgibbon, M. Reis, Charles Morris, G. R. Mabb, Joseph Kilgore, J. L. Andrews, J. T. Burkholder and J. A. McCready. F. S. Butler was elected chancellor in June, 1889, and G. R. Mabb re-elected K. of R. & S. The present number of members is 125, and value of lodge property $500. T. Fitzpatrick is representative to the grand lodge, and the other officers in lodge rank are E. D. Matteson, G. W. Double, P. J. Nolan, W. J. Loucks, J. W. Baker, G. R. Mabb, W. H. Malick, E. T. Wright, W. F. Robinson and J. C. Malick. Bradford Division No. 22, U. R. K. of P., was instituted December 22, 1885. The early members of this division were Henry S. Tucker, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Charles M. Carr, James A. Lindsey, Edwin P. Wright, Andrew R. Burns, Fred S. Parker, James A. McCready, M. H. Fitzgibbons, John C. McCrea, J. S. Fritz, William H. Malick, Edwin J. Chambers, William H. Hall, George W. Slocum, C. L. Bradburn, John A. Nelson, William G. Kahl, C. L. Casterline, J. L. Tracy, J. F. Lasher, John W. Vantine, James O’Hara, Frank E. Bradley, James E. Grainger, Sanford Gordon, M. Herron, Isaac V. Averill, A. W. Swanson, Charles Brown, C. Hazelmaier, William C. Howe, David W. Lerch, P. H. Linderman. The seven first named were elected officers in the order of rank. The officials in 1889 were A. D. Burns, James O’Hara, E. D. Matteson, W. H. Malick and E. P. Wright. The present membership is thirty.

Bradford Post No. 141, G. A. R., was instituted August 13, 1879, with the following members: J. A. Ege, Peter Grace, Joseph Moorhead, J. W. Shaw, J. W. Searls, Henry A. Page, W. H. Perrigo, J. K. Graham, Clinton J. Smith, A. Wicks, W. W. Brown, F. M. Lockwood, C. G. Cooper, J. C. Sturgeon, T. J. Fennerty, J. F. Collins, A. S. Sinclair, M. W. Ferris, Lynford Lardner, G. H. Lyons, G. H. Baldwin, S. M. Potter, P. M. Fuller, H. B. Huff, E. B. Chamberlain, W. M. Boggs, S. M. Sayer, E. S. Pier, Benjamin Franklin and J. P. Siggins. The commanders have been E. R. Sherman, R. A. Dempsey, J. T. Bishop, W. W. Brown and William Dobie, who is now commander. The position of adjutant has been filled by J. K. Graham, W. C. Rockwell and E. R. Sherman. E. R. Sherman is the present adjutant. The trustees are F. H. Roberts, J. C. Hughes and E. R. Sherman. S. Howard is S. V.; A. N. Heard, J. V. The number of members is 180, and the value of post property $1,500. A few years ago a number of the members of this post formed the Union Veteran Legion, and were duly installed. Later on another body of men from the same post organized Union Veteran Union, and in 1889 another post was formed by members of the parent post.

John S. Melvin Post No. 585, G. A. R., was mustered June 21, 1889, by J. M. McElroy, mustering officer, assisted by the following officers: W. Dobie, S. V. Com.; J. E. Baldwin, J. V. Com.; B. F. Wright, Chap.; George Griffith, Q. M.; H. M. Choate, Adjt.; F. H. Roberts, O. D.; Thomas Ryan, O. G.; M. B. McMahon, I. S.; W. W. Brown, escort. The charter officers, in order of rank, were P. M. Shannon, C. P. Byron, W. L. Yelton, W. C. Rockwell, L. E. Hamsher, J. W. McFarland, W. B. Chapman, C. T. Cummings, C. H. Babcock, Arch. Gilchrist, J. T. Bishop, T. J. Fennerty, I. G. Howe, and the trustees, R. McAllister, S. D. Heffner, T. J. Fennerty. The present officers are as follows: C., I. G. Howe; S. V. C., S. D. Heffner; J. V. C., W. L. Yelton; Chap., Warren G. Gray; Q. M., W. C. Rockwell; Adjt., J. L. Adams, O.D., W. B. Chapman; O. G., S. Fisher; Surg., E. I. Baldwin; Sergt. Maj., C. F. Cummings, Q. M. S., T. J. Fennerty.

In February 1890, W. B. Chapman was elected judge advocate general of the National Encampment of the U.V.L. Camp No. 7, Union Veteran Legion, was instituted July 29, 1886. Among the first officers were C. C., S. D. Heffner; L. C., W. K. Laney; M., C. E. Harrington; A., M. Albert; Q. M., T. Gallaher; O. D., N. S. Siggins; C., W. B. Tracy, O. G., Thomas Fitzpatrick. The membership at close of year was eighty-five.

Gen. Kane Command No. 6, Union Veteran Union, Department of Pennsylvania, was instituted August 20, 1887, with thirty-five members. The first officers were C., T. J. Fennerty; L. C., Callip Tibbetts; M., G. W. Eddy; A., N. Wilkins; Q. M., C. H. Rhodes; C., D. F. Wolcott; O. D., M. C. Canrow; O. O. T. G., J. H. Leffler. Command No. 6 elected the following named officers in October, 1889: T. J. Fennerty, Col.; C. B. Tibbetts, Lieut. Col.; C. P. Byron, Surg.; D. F. Wolcott, Chap.; L. F. Egbert, Q. M.; T. C. Mosier, O. of D., and L. Wolfe, O. of G.

During the G. A. R. reunion of August, 1888, the pipe wherein the blue-colored fire was burning, exploded, killing three men: Robert Hurley, Ed. Duel and Wallace E. Curtis, and wounding many others. In September, 1888, the second annual reunion of the Bucktails was held at Bradford.

The Bradford Military Company completed enrollment August 30, 1880, with a roster of eighty-seven men and asked to be assigned to the Seventeenth National Guard Post. This was subsequently assigned to the Sixteenth. Among its charter members who answered roll-call in September 1885 (five years after muster) were T. F. Conneely, J. C. Fox (the present captain), A. McAlpine, F. E. Bradley, T. Scroxton, H. Field, A. D. Burns, John J. Lane, W. F. Robinson, R. C. Hazelmair, Ed. J. Boylston and W. G. Kohl.

The score made by this company in January, 1890, the years of service and names of candidates for sharpshooters’ medals are given as follows:

T. F. Conneely, lieutenant 47 2 J. W. Maybee, private 31 3
F. E. Bradley, lieutenant 46 8 C. L. Blakeslee, corporal 31 2
W. B. Chapman, private 45 2 C. W. Conneely, musician 31 2
T. B. Bahew, private 43 2 I. O. Cloud, private 31 2
T. W. Scroxton, sergeant 42 7 N. R. Baker, private 31 2
F. F. Eiliben, private 42 4 A. F. Campbell, corporal 30 2
F. W. Webster, sergeant 42 5 J. C. Fox, captain 30 4
C. G. Griffith, private 41 3 H. C. Chesney, private 30 2
C. L. Griffin, sergeant 39 4 C. W. Heard, private 30 3
W. F. Robinson, sergeant 39 2 G. O. Slone, private 29 3
J. E. Fennerty, private 39 2 M. H. Riley, corporal 29 2
C. W. Wallace, 37 3 J. J. Crosby, private 28 2
M. M. Neal, 36 4 H. C. Chattle, private 27 2
E. J. Boylston, sergeant 36 4 E. F. McIntyre, private 27 2
E. E. Blair, corporal 36 6 W. N. Crane, private 27 2
G. F. Bullock, corporal 35 5 S. B. Burton, private 27 2
U. C. Elliott, private 34 1 A. D. Burns, lieutenant 27 3
T. F. Mullen, private 34 1 E. F. Riley, private 27 2
F. E. Cloud, 34 2 E. A. Sherman, private 27 3
W. J. Bovaird, 34 1 J. E. Begel, private 26 2
G. W. McKay, 33 1 F. N. Levens, private 26 1
O. B. Cutting, 32 2 J. W. Crosby, private 26 2
R. H. Slone, corporal 32 2 A. F. Leonard, private 25 1
J. D. Snyder, private 32 2 E. P. Wilcox, private 25 4

The Armory Hall Company was incorporated in April, 1881, with Charles A. Bailey, president; Thomas Connolly, secretary, and F. E. Bradley, treasurer. There were sixty shares of $100 each subscribed, the president and secretary each holding thirteen shares.

Bradford Relief Corps No. 13 was organized January 29, 1885, with the following named members: Madams M. A. Wallace, N. J. Heffner, E. R. Sherman, Lucy Siggins, E. M. Gillespy, J. E. Broniger, Allis Smith, A. O. Baker, Rachel Troup, W. G. Shaw, Laura Switzer, Amond Siggins, S. C. Jayert, M. J. Mitchel, C. Hill, I. S. Woursly, E. J. Chambers, G. Graff, B. Brown, L. B. Clark, S. E. Artly, A. Jones, L. A. Levans, M. A. Rockwell, J. Hood, L. J. Sherman, D. Goodwin, Lottie McAlister, J. McEntyre, G. Ashdun, Z. Gareman and H. Laurence. Madams M. A. Wallace, Culbertson, Sherman and Karns have presided over the corps, while Madams Gillespy, Godfrey, Langworthy, Green and Bergman have filled the office of secretary. Mrs. Chapman, of Bradford, was elected color bearer of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the National Encampment of the U.V.L.

Tunungwant Lodge No. 111, Ancient Order of United Workmen, was instituted June 1, 1877 with the following members: H. H. Adsit, J. L. Andrews, A. L. Avery, L. B. Brown, T. J. Powers, H. Wilson, P. D. Wright and O. C. Cutting, who are now members, with others who have removed. The past-masters are named as follows: J. L. Andrews, J. T. Bishop, J. W. Bogardus, Robert Collins, George E. Davis, Frank Fowler, I. G. Howe, James A. Lindsey, T. J. Powers, C. A. Sinclair, J. W. Siggins, S. D. Wearing, C. R. Cosolowsky, C. A. Spreater, F. H. Bailey, T. J. Fennerty, A. Simpson, W. W. White, A. A. Perkins, H. Wilson, H. M. Harkness, A. P. Odell, T. Kavanaugh, John Wilson, Otho Gash, H. R. Waiger, S. D. Winter and F. W. Hastings. The membership is 190. The officers elected for 1890 comprise C. Burnsides, J. W. Siggins, W. W. White, J. A. Lindsey, F. W. Hastings, J. G. Howe, F. Fowler, Otho Gash, S. D. Winter and A. P. Odell.

Bradford Legion No. 16, S. K. A. O. U. W. was organized July 30, 1884, with the following named officers: J. T. Bishop, C.; James A. Lindsey, V. C.; J. S. Barlow, Lt. C.; W. L. Beardsley, Rec.; A. Simpson, R. T.; A. L. Wyman, Treas.; J. Franklin, Chap. The names of commanders are J. T. Bishop, J. A. Lindsey, A. P. Odell, M. L. Thorn, Otho Gash, W. W. White, Jacob Turk and S. A. Smith, with E. Burnsides, M.; J. P. Eaton, S. B.; B. Sackrand, Sr. W.; J. Turk, Jr. W.; M. L. Thorn, G. L. The position of secretary has been held by W. L. Beardsley, J. M. Denny and D. H. Rook, who is the present recorder. There are thirty-six members. The officers elected in 1890 are W. W. White, Charles Burnsides, F. W. Hastings, W. H. Coleman, Otho Gash, D. H. Rook, J. A. Lindsey, A. P. Odell, H. S. Karns, Jacob Turk and H. Boss; James A. Lindsey is P. G. C. and treasurer.

Bradford Council No. 302, Royal Areanum, was instituted March 24, 1879, with the following members: S. L. Kinkead, M. Danson, E. W. Barker, Ezra Holmes, A. Thornton, C. B. Seymour, F. M. Sweet, C. W. Dennis, H. M. Spence, H. R. Lamb, J. M. Armstrong, F. D. Wood, F. M. Lockwood, F. H. Murdoch, W. A. Brown, P. G. Andrew, C. A. Siegfried, R. Pettibone, F. P. Morris, C. Murray, L. Kennedy, A. A. Perry, J. N. Markham, George Sheffield, I. Beam, A. L. Ewing, O. N. Hazen, M. D. Harris and G. Chapman. The names of past regents are J. W. McFarland, J. A. Ege, J. T. Evans, H. M. Spence, F. H. Murdoch, J. L. Barrett, J. A. Lindsey, W. C. Henry, A. Thornton, B. McAllister, P. D. Tangney and the present regent, John C. McKenna. The names of secretaries are S. L. Kinkead, J. T. Evans, J. L. Barrett, and J. T. Evans, the present secretary. The present membership is twenty four. In ten years this council has lost seven members by death, and paid out $21,000 in benefits. The officers for 1890 are P. W. Howe, E. R. Shepard, J. C. McKenna, J. B. McElwaine, G. H. Mills, J. T. Evans, F. P. Slocum, S. L. Rhodes, C. Spangler and A. Thornton.

Keystone Council No. 144, Catholic Benevolent Legion, was instituted April 28, 1886. Among the first officers were P.C., J. T. Kinsler; P., A. H. B1omer; V. P.., John E. Sullivan; 0., J. F. Leonard; S., J. H. Ossenbeck; C., A. Gillis: T., W. Hanley; Sr. C., C. P. Byron. The officers elected in December, 1889, are C.. J. H. Ossenbeck; P., A. Gillis; V. P., M. J. Berry; O., Phillip Wise; R. S., D. Healey; C., A. H. Blomer; Treas., Joseph Fischer; M., James E. Henretty; G., J. M. Englehaupt; Trustees, John E. Sullivan, J. F. Leonard, P. H. Maroney.

Bradford Branch No. 13, Catholic Mutual Benevolent Association, was instituted April 16, 1879. Among the past presidents of this association the names of J. T. Kinsler, J. B. Fox, James Casey, A. H. Blomer, A. H. Ossenbeck, M. McMahon, J. E. Sullivan, T. A. Flynn and Dennis Healy are recorded. John O’Brien is recorder. Other officers of long service are J. A. Myers (of Duke Centre), John Madigan, Leonard Wholer, J. J. Cleery, B. Healy and J. J. Lane.

Osmer Lodge No. 2365, K. of H., was organized February 5, 1881. The past dictators are H. C. Hacock, J. P. McGibbenny, S. Gordon, F. Perkins, W. C. Henry, S. D. Miller, J. N. Mapes, F. W. Hastings, H. Frank, J. L. Dulin; P. S. D., Col. J. A. Ege; P. G. D., James A. Lindsey, John H. Cosford, N. Sweet, M. D., I. G. Howe and J. M. Geiger. James A. Lindsey served this lodge as secretary for seven years, E. N. Hallock for two years, and in the directory F. W. Hastings is credited with holding the position in 1889. There are eighty-four members. The present officers, in order of rank, are C. H. Swift, W. H. Conklin, D. McKenney, W. T. Magaw, J. A. Lindsey, F. W. Hastings, J. G. Howe, J. P. McGibbenny, J. W. Fritts, A. Brown, D. Grennells and H. C. Hacock.

Bradford Encampment No. 56, Knights of St. John and Malta, was instituted September 2, 1885, with S. L. Koonse, J. A. Waldo, W. Rople, A. S. Ackerly, R. F. Howland, D. B. Croll, W. L. Ford, C. A. Cummings, A. L. Wyman. M. D. Murray, W. B. Van Horn, P. A. Darby, F. G. Tenny, N. W. McCoort., T. F. Howe, J. Z. Wise, H. C. Murray, J. Robinson, H. C. Brown, J. H. Flynn, C. H. Dubois, E. J. Cross, J. A. Lindsey, M. A. Todd, R. A. Beatty and J. E. Simons, members. The names of past commanders are R. A. Beatty, J. A. Lindsey, A. P. Odell and E. J. Boylston, with C. A. Cummings, assistant chancellor. There are 171 members. R. A. Beatty is most eminent grand commander of the chapter general of America, and A. P. Odell is grand prior of the State of Pennsylvania. The present officers in encampment rank are L. D. Gowdy, E. C. Dean, W. T. Johnson, D. H. Rook, E. J. Boylston, C. A. Cummings, S. L. Koonse and seven minor officers. There were 163 members reported in March, 1890.

Star Conclave No 171, Improved Order of Heptasophs, was organized February 16, 1888, with the following officers: Past archon, L. B. Lockard; archon, George S. Bright; provost, H. W. Eaton, Jr.; prelate, James George; rotary, G. H. Mills; financier, F. W. Hastings; treasurer, E. B. Pemberton; inspector, J. W. Leasure; warden, N. W. McCourt; sentinel, M. Henlein; H. W. Eaton, Jr., was archon in 1889, and G. H: Mills, secretary. There were forty.flve members in July, 1889. The officers for 1890 are T. A. Sangster, A. W. Coburn, G. H. Mills, E. B. Pemberton, F. W. Hastings, W. F. Rhone, A. Simon, C. R. Cosolowsky and W. H. Johnson.

Don Abarband Lodge No. 85, Independent Order Sons of Benjamin, claimed thefollowing named officers in 1889: G. Herz, H. Friedenberg, I. J. Yampolski, S. Werthman, B. Ash, A. Simon, M. Sidorsky, Rev. D. W. Jacobson, L. M. Kreinson, J. B. Levine, M. A.. Todd. Among the past presidents are H. Friedenberg A. Simon, L. Kronenberg, Gustav Herz, N. Levinson, S. Grange, B. Ash, H. Frank and H. S. Sakoiski. The officers chosen in January, 1890, in lodge rank are H. Friedenberg, H. Frank, B. Ash, S. Wertbman and D. Andriesse. The present membership is forty-seven.

On November 12, 1888, W. C. 372 of the Patriotic Order Sons of America was instituted at Kane, July 9, 1889. National Representative Clarence F. Heeth, of Philadelphia, and J. T. Campbell, district president of McKean county, assisted by W. C. 372 of Kane, instituted Washington Camp No. 452 at Bradford. The Degree Team of “372” conferred the degree of the council. The first officers, elected July 8, were R. L. Edgett, M. A. Henlein, Otto Koch, W. K. Andrus, L. C. Blakeslee, R. \V. Murray, A. R. Simons, M. I. Denel, Mat. Neil, and Trustees W. K. Andrus, L. B. Waters, A. N. Heard.

Bradford Lodge No. 1111, K. & L. of H.. was instituted December 10, 1885, by G. P., L. B. Lockard, and D. G. P., A. N. Heard. Among the presidents of this society may be named I. G. Howe, Mrs. J. M. Brooks, F. W. Hastings, Mrs. E. M. Wheeler and H. H. North. Ascension Lodge No. 1345 claims Mr. Heard as protector, and Mrs. S. Nobles, secretary. Bradford City Lodge No. 103, Independent Order Free Sons of Israel, was instituted in April, 1881. The past presidents of this lodge are A. Leo Weil, E. Kahn, I. Rich, B. Forst, Fred. Silberburg, A. Silberburg, J. Eloskey, M. Cohn, I. Kahn, Felix Steinberger, A. M. Mayer, S. Fisher. The secretary in 1889 was A. M. Samuels. In 1890 J. Weiss was chosen president, with H. Cohn, A. Silberberg, Fred Silberberg, I. Rich, H. Frank and H. Leny tilling the other offices.

Bradford Lodge No. 50, Order of the Golden Chain, was instituted October 7, 1885. Among the commanders were F. P. Slocum, Winfield Scott, A. W. Johnson and H. W. Eaton; James Geary was secretary in 1889. The officers, in lodge rank, elected in January, 1890, are H. W. Eaton, Jr., P. H. Linderman, W. H. Murphy, J. Freerkson, A. R. Stewart, W. Scott, J. L. Johnson, S. D. Weaver, Thomas Banker and C. E. Thompson. At date of election there were thirty-eight members reported.

Tuna Valley Council No. 70, Home Circle, was instituted October 8, 1883. The past leaders include W. C. Henry, E. R. Shepard, J. P. Taylor and D. R. MacKenzie; F. D. Williams was secretary in 1889. The elections of 1890 resulted in the choice of L. C. Longaker. for leader; C. E. Black, V. L.; W. F. Robinson, instructor; M. A. Freeman, secretary; H. T. Crandall, F. S.. and James Robinson, treasurer. There are thirty-two members reported.

Dewey Union No. 5, Equitable Aid Union, was instituted June 7, l879, by Supreme President Dewey. The P. Ps. are Frank Fowler, L. B. Hill, Delos Armstrong, Mrs. E. B. Burley, W. Walters, T. O’Connor and L. W. Smith.

The Bradford Aid Union was organized in 1880, and the petition for incorporation signed January 15, by D. Whiticar, George Young, C. H. Sherwood, Nathaniel Sweet and A. J. Edgett. The latter was first president.

The Equitable Aid Society of Bradford was organized June 15, 1881. Its officers were P. P., W. D. Lucas; P., J. B. Rutherford; V. P., S. Ames; S., Miss A. J. Lucas; T., Mrs. A. H. Smith; F. C., Mrs. S. A. Lucas, Miss A. J. Lucas, S. Ames. Messrs. Lucas and Rutherford filled the offices of president and secretary in 1889. L. B. Thompson was first secretary, and is now filling that position. The officers of this union for 1890 are J. Burt, president, with P. T. Fitzgerald, E. B. Chappell, M. Nusbaum, Mrs. Burt, David Drummond, Mrs. Lyons, Mrs. Bender, Mrs. Wightman and J. D. Burt

Bradford Local Branch No. 316, Order of the Iron Hall, was instituted February 3, 1886. The chief justices of the past are H. Harmon, N. Wise and W. S. Robison. R. T. Shaw is accountant succeeding W. L. Ford. Among the first members were D. H. Rook, R. Gregg and L. E. Ayerv, and the officers named. The officers chosen in December, 1889, are as follows: Past chief justice, D. H. Rook; chief justice, W. L. Ford; vice-justice, C. F. Cummings: cashier, L. E. Avery; accountant, John M. Crawford; adjuster, W. L. Robinson; prelate, Joseph Franklin; herald, W. C. Maxwell; watchman, F. L. Bodine; vedette, D. Campbell; trustees, Joseph Franklin, D. Campbell and S. D. Winters.

Bradford Tent No. 4, Knights of the Maccabees of the World, was instituted Max’ 31, 1884. Among the early members were N. J. Stanton, J. R. Porter, J. B. McCutcheon, R. F. Howland, P. A. Derby, T. J. Berridge and R. W. Murray. The present sir knight commander is F. D. Matteson and the other officers in tent rank are G. 0. Slone, G. B. Watson, R. McAllister, John Burton, Dr. N. Sweet, T. J. Bateman, John Bogart, F. B. Hazelton, John Lyons, John Lustig and T. J. Berridge. M. G. Raub, the record keeper, reports a membership of 290.

Bradford Lodge No. 97, Sons of St. George, was reorganized January 16, 1887, with the following named officers: P. P., V. Stanford; P., John Hocking; V. P., John Slocum; S.. T. J. Parkes; T., H. D. Hulme; trustees, William Dickson, H. T. Hulme, M. W. Ferris.

Bradford Branch No. 690, Robert Emmett Land League, was organized in July, 1882, to forward the political interests of the people of Ireland. Among the officials were T. F. McManus, Marshall McMahon, Edward Frawley, D. A. Dennison, J. J. Lane, John J. Sheehe and F. T. Flynn. The officers for 1890 are B. Healy, M. McMahon, P. H. Davitt, L. Cüshing and D. A. Dennison, the corresponding secretary.

Bradford Lodge, I. O. G. T., was organized September 18, 1867, with thirty-two members. A. C. Switzer was first W. C. T., and Mrs. Caroline Holmes, W. V. T.

The Ladies’ Temperance Association of Bradford was organized September 11, 1872, with Mrs. J. Colby, president; Madams Young and Crandall, vice-presidents; Mrs. A. DeGolier, treasurer; Madams Pomeroy and Osgood, secretaries; and Madams P. T. Kennedy, Foster, Blair, J. N. Brown, Frank and Miss Dieter, executive committee. [The Temperance Reading-room Association was incorporated in May, 1879, with W. W. Brown, T. J. Powers, W. J. McCullough, R. M. Sayer. A. W. Newell, C. L. Wheeler, G. L. Watson, H. E. Norris and N. Bushnell, directors. There were no less than sixty-two subscribers.]

The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was organized October 13, 1880, with the following named members: Madams C. H. Hoffman, H. A. Page, F. T. Davis, W. Chambers, W. Boggs, L. C. Blakeslee, C. Johnson, J. S. Wilson, 0. Stone, T. B. Hoover, — Whitman, J. N. Bolard, J. R. Findley, C. E. Hatch, C. D. Greenlee, O. Hotchkjss, J. Bondson, J. Morgan, C. E. Garton, J. Rogerson, J. Erwin, A. Metcalf. Mrs. H. A. Page was first president; Mrs. O. Hotchkiss, second president; Mrs. J. N. Bolard, third president, and Mrs. W. Chambers, fourth president. Mrs. J. K. Purse is corresponding secretary, and Mrs. D. A. Burnett, recorder. There are 150 members, and seventeen honorary members, with property valued at $2,000, including hall, which was built in 1888. The officers for 1890 are Mrs. W. Chambers, president; Mrs. J. K. Purse, corresponding secretary; Mrs. D. A. Burnett, recording secretary; Mrs. J. A. Kennedy, treasurer; Mrs. F. J. Davis, vice-president at large.

Tuna Council No. 17, Royal Templars of Temperance, was instituted September 27, 1887. with the following officers: P. C., T. M. Shearer; S. C., D. H.. Rook; V. C., T. M. Griffith; R. S., C. G. Essler; F. S., H. H. Lock; T., C. E. Tucker; S. P. C. G. L. and G. T., D. T. Seeley. The officers for 1890 are as follows: S C., D. T. Seeley; V, C., Mrs, E. B. Laraway; P. C., D.H. Rook; C.,Mrs. L. Messner; F. S., W. W. Laraway; R. S., Mrs. E. M. Adams; T., W. G. Long; H., Mrs. E. M. Arnold; G., B. F. Shergerland; S., C. G. Esler. The number of beneficiary members is thirty four and of honorary members thirty-two. United Council No. 80, R. T. of T.., was organized August 10, 1886. The officers in 1887 were P C., E. R. Sherman: S. C., A. N. Heard; V. C., S. Howard; R. S., John Bogart; F. S., Martha Sherman; T., Mrs. L. Westbrook; P. C., E. M. Wheeler. In 1890 the following named officers were elected: S. Howard, Mrs. Knerr, A. Simpson, Mrs. Lenehan, R. S. R. Knerr, Miss Smith, E. E Comstock, William Campbell, Miss Abbey, Miss. Hacock and E. W.Mann The membership at present numbers 110.

Women’s Protective and Reform Association of Bradford was incorporated in May, 1882, with the object of aiding women seeking a virtuous livelihood. Amanda T. Jones was president; Artie B. Willard, vice-president; Margaret B. Stone, Mary A. Wolcott, Mrs. John Brown, Augustus W. Newell and H. S. Davis, directors. Among the members were Mrs.. F. H. Stanford, M. D., and Mrs. J. J. White.

The Young Men’s Christian Association was organized May 27, 1889, when a board of managers was appointed. This board comprises C. P. Cody, F. D. Cleland, H. S. Thompson, J. T. Evans, J. L. Davidson, W. W. Brown, H. W. Blakeslee, J. W. Davis, W. H. Dennis, E. E. Tait, E. T. Howell, J. A. Perkins, P. A. Kent, John McCrum and S. Hollenbeck. The association proposes to rent the principal room on the second floor of the new Masonic Temple. In 1890 W. H. Dennis was chosen president; P. A. Kent, vice-president; J. T. Evans, treasirer; S. Hollenbeck, recorder, and J. G. Purple, general secretary. Total number of members 181.

The Cherra Bicker Cholim Relief Society was incorporated January 14, 1884, on petition of Rev. S. Weil, K. Berwald, H. Sigel, A. Joseph, H. Cohen and I. Cohen. Typographical Union No. 185 was organized in May, 1879, with George J. Kiehm, W. R. Barnwell, James Howell, R. A. Russell, James Spear, C. H Widgeon and Harry K Welsh, members The corresponding secretary of this union is James W. Leasure, and the recorder, George 0. Slone. Among the members are R. A. Russell and H. K. Welsh of the first organization, W. J. Cotter, D. A. Ropp, George Hummell, S. C. Gilman and A. G. McKenna. The officers for 1890 comprise R. A. Russell, president; George O. Sloan, secretary; J. W. Leasure, correspondent; H. K. Welsh, treasurer; W. J. Cotter, vice-president, and J. Fetterley, chairman of executive committee. There were sixteen members in March, 1890. Oil Exchange Division No. 254, Locomotive Engineers, was formally organized June 7 and completed organization July 7, 1884, with L. J. Jones, chief; James Wheeler, first engineer; J. R. Bauta, second engineer; H. G. King, H. Kendall and O. Burke, assistant engineers; C. A. Clough, guide, and C. L. Shaffer, chaplain. Folwell Lodge No. 326, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, was instituted July 10, 1886. Among the officers were E. Bellington, G. P. Clough, J. H. Fenner, C. W. Palmer and P. T. Lane. The following named are the officers for 1890: C. P. Clough, master; C. H. Alger, secretary; G. E. Lovelace, collector, and M. W. Maybee, magazine agent.

The Cigar-makers Union claimed the following named officials: President, R. Coeninberg; vice-president, P. Hopkins; financial secretary, J. Semhauser; corresponding secretary, P. H. Kieley; recording secretary, P. H. Kieley; sergeant -at-arms, M. Singer; trustees, W. Ruple, J. Harbrecht, and treasurer, John Bohne. The four principal officers for 1890 are P. Hopkins, J. Harbrecht T. J. Cary and J. Casterline.

The Well Drillers Union was incorporated November 27, 1888, with C. H. Snively, James G. Winger, H. Gosser, C. H. Ley and D. W. Brenton, trustees.

The Bradford Athletic Club was organized in February, 1886, and secured spacious rooms in the Producers’ Petroleum Exchange for athletic exercises, as well as club quarters. The list of members in 1887 was as follows: H. A. Marlin, C. R. Huntley, Tom Kennedy, C. M. Dodge, C. H. Lavens, J. M. Fuller, B. F. Smith, E. P. Whitcomb, H. C. Brooks, J. L. Johnson, W. H. Powers, L. E. Mallory, E. W. Wolfe, C. M. Brennan, Fred Davis, Heber Denman, John Denman, M. B. Pierce, C. K. Book, B. F. Kennedy, L. E. Hamsher, Sam Kennedy, R. C. Sherman, W. R. Weaver, C. A. Mitchell, W. G. Gray, J. L. Barrett, Fred McKee, J. P. Taylor, J. A. Johnson, G. L. Roberts, William Cochran, S. G. Bayne, G. H. Mills, T. B. Flynn, J. C. Flynn, W. J. Alexander, C. P. Cody, R. H.Gibson, W. S. Watson, H. K. Williams, C. E. Tucker, W. L. Curtis, B. M. Bailey, G. F. Groves, Harry Egbert, T. P. Thompson, S. C. Rhodes, P. M. Shannon, J. H. Evans, W. J. Russell, H. J. Seigfried, C. B. Shepard, A. Willoughby, G. K. Hawkins, G. L. Watson, W. F. Robinson, J. B. Buttry, G. A. Bodine, W. C. Leonard, H. B. Goe, G. H. Potter, Walt Willis, R. L. Edgett, D. H. Jack, H. C. Sanderson, E. H. Barnum, F. D. Wood, C. S. Hubbard, C. F. Collins, Kenton Saulnier, D. J. Thayer, F. E. Wood, J. A. Walker, J. C. Gormely, Robert Long, T. E. McCray, L. B. Prosser, W. P. Shoemaker, Bateman Goe, C. A. Norton, Frank Gifford, S. M. Reid, W. C. Higgins, A. L. Avery, C. C. Youmans, W. W. Bell, I. W. Sherley, A. C. Hawkins, J. E. Haskell, J. C. Greenewald, D. C. Greenewald, J. K. Wilson, M. Matson, J. W. McCray, W. H. Scott, H. M. Spence, S. G. Slyke, C. Foley, E. S. Williamson, W. F. Flynn, R. T. Shaw, J. C. Boyce, R. W. Carroll, W. G. Carroll, D. O’Donnell, J. A. Simonds, C. W. Dennis, E. A. Weart, Clark Hayes, F. H. Willis, F. W. Groves, B. Newcomer, John B. Zook, W. G. Mason, Walter Bovaird, J. B. Farrell, C. C. Conroy, E. L. Adams, M. H. Byles, M. Compton, E. B. Pemberton, D. Marks. S. G. Coffin, C. H. Filkins, James Robinson, F. G. Boyer, C. E. Hequembourg, A. P. Huey, E. Given, W. W. Splane, C. C. Melvin, A. B. Smitb, John P. Zane, E. R. Shepard, E. J. Boylston, J. T. Evans, C. P. Byron, J. W. VanTine, E. T. Johnson, W. H. Orcutt, C. D. Evans, T. N. Barnsdall, J. B. Chapman, L. A. Brenneman, Henry Wilson, William Hanley, F. P. Atkinson, E. W. Coleman, George B. Morgan, J. H. Healey, J. E. Wolf, F. A. Griffin, George A. Sturgeon, J. F. Wilson. W. E. Pickering, H. G. Morrow, F. P. Wentworth, John B. Brawley, R. B. Johnson, John O’Brien, H. H. Stowe, J. H. Field, F. P. Leonard, A. B. Walker, Frank Chapman, T. J. Powers, John McCrum, W/ B. Chapman. B. F. Cushing, J. M. McElroy. J. B. Janes, G. C. Scott, W. C. Kennedy, M. J. Lowe, T. J. Melvin, F. L. Smith, David Kirk, James Flanigan, L. W. Oaks, E. A. Van Scoy, F. T. Coast, A. M. Straight, J. D. Wolf, O. B. Comfort, Charles Samuels, Harry Brinker, R. L. Mason, A. Fraser, J. W. Jeffry, Joseph Albertson.


The Board of Trade is an important institution in Bradford. An enterprising party of Bradford men organized a stock company for the purpose of establishing and conducting in this city a furniture factory. The project was carried into effect. From that organization sprang the Board of Trade. The glass works were started under its patronage, the present shops of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad and several other industrial enterprises. The Board of Trade was allowed to become inactive for a few years, but was reorganized for service early in 1887. Since that time its members have been untiring in their efforts to aid Bradford by encouraging manufacturers to locate here. The board is composed of some of Bradford’s best citizens. Col. A. I. Wilcox was genera1 agent. C. B. Whitehead, R. B. Stone, W. W. Brown, C. H. Kennedy, A. J. Edgett, D. C. Greenewald, C. J. Lane, A. W. Newell, J. K. Merriam, H. F. Barbour, Loyal Ward, A. M. Mayer, H. S. Southard. F. W. Groves, S. G. Elliott, C. P. Cody were among the first officers of the revived organization. In January, 1888, the Board of Trade elected the following named directors: R. B. Stone, W. W. Brown, A. M. Mayer, A. J. Edgett, L. Emery, Jr., John P. Zane, F. W. Groves, J. K. Merriam, D. C. Greenewald, G. S. Stewart, A. W. Newell, H. S. Southard, G. A. Berry, C. P Cody, C. H. Kennedy, R. A. Dempsey and S. G. Elliott.

The Bradford Telephone Exchange was opened in April, 1880, with F. A. Newell, manager. Derrick City, Red Rock, Gillmor and Tarport were connected on April 6. The system has been extended in every direction within the last nine years. In June, 1883, the strike of telegraph employes was inaugurated at Bradford, and continued four weeks. During the strike Barrett & Harvey constructed a private line between the Producers’ Exchange and Bradford Exchange, and transacted business at five cents per message. The postal telegraph line was built through Bradford in January, 1884.

The Pompelon Club, organized some time ago, is one of the leading literary societies of the district. The officers for 1890 are C. L. Wheeler, president; Mrs. R. B. Stone, vice-president; L. H. Simons, historian; H. H. North, treasurer; Loyal Ward, Eugene Mullin, Mrs. Ada Cable, 0. B. Comfort and John P. Zane, members of committee on literary exercises; W. B. Chapman, Miss McBurney, Miss Biscoe, Ferd Kreiner and W. L. Curtis, members of the executive committee. The topics for discussion are of a philosophical character, such as the “Future of the Republic,” by W. J. Milliken; “Free Coinage of Silver,” by W. W. Brown; “The Future of the Africo-American,” by P. R. Cotter; “The Congressional Embargo,” by H. F. Barbour, and “Trend of Thought Favorable to Republican Forms,” by T. F. Mullin.

The Columbian Club was organized in the fall of 1889, with L. B. Lockard, president; A. H. Blomer and C. C. Melvin, vice-presidents; George B. Morgan, secretary, and C. P. Byron, treasurer. In October this circle of social Democrats purchased a two-story building in rear of Whitney & Wheeler’s office for club uses.

The Bradford Driving Park and Fair Association was permanently organized October 11, 1889, with A. C. Hawkins, president; F. H. Chapman, vice-president; C. C. Melvin, treasurer; W. R. Weaver, secretary, and they with L. E. Mallory, L. E. Hamsher, Joseph Klench, C. C. Kimball, H. G. Cutting, James Baylor, C. DuBois, R. A. Dempsey and P. Newell were directors.

Manufacturing and Other Industries.

In former pages references are made to the pioneer saw-mills and shingle makers of this section. Late in the “fifties” the manufacture of oil from local coal was attempted; in 1881—82 oil explorations were begun, but not until 1878 was a practical effort to discover the oil ocean made.

Oil Boom

In the fall of 1871, Foster built a derrick, and began work on the Henchie farm. He struck a log at a depth of 180 feet and farther down a flfteen.barrel well—the first in the district which paid expenses. This well soon gave out, and in 1878 the Butts & Foster, the Olmsted, William Barnsdall’s, on the Hooker farm, and that on the Buchanan farm were the only evidences of oil successes. Theo. E. Barnsdall pumped the first two producing wells, and states that $21,000 were realized from them before they were abandoned. In 1875 Jackson, Walker & Co. struck their well on the Kennedy farm, and found it to be a 100-barrel one, being the only true producer at the time. Jackson & Walker had from ten to twenty wells in operation before work on the Quintuple commenced.

The village proper of that day contained about 300 inhabitants, but the stampede which followed this discovery soon swelled the population to thousands, and the modern Bradford was commenced. The Emery Manufacturing Company’s Refining Works were established in 1887 by Mr. Haggerty, on the north city line, as a small oil refinery of two cheese-box stills, with a capacity of 150 barrels each. The works became the property of Lewis Emery, Jr., under whom the little refinery was conducted until the explosion last winter. Early in 1889 two hall-stills, perfected by Mr. Wilbur, were added, enlarging the capacity considerably and changing the whole system materially. The Commercial Gazette, referring to this new industry in August last, says:

Their entire works will be completed and in full operation by about the middle of October, and then they will consume 1,000 barrels of crude per day. They will be operated by an entirely new system, called the Hall improved process. The Hall system gives a continuous distillation, and this industry will be the only one in the country having it in use. When it can be said that Mr. L. Emery, Jr., the proprietor, has a pipe line of his own; a tank line of his own; owns a sufficient production of crude to supply the works; has a house In Philadelphia supplied with plenty of tankage and distributing wagons with which to speedily deliver his products to dealers; and in fact is provided with everything to perfect such an enterprise, it can be safely said that the success of the Emery Manufacturing Company is assured, and that Bradford can lay claim to the most modern oil industry of the age. Mr. Emery is one of the “old-timers” in the oil business, having followed it since 1865, when he made his debut at Pithole. He came to this city July 28, 1875, and in the following September completed three miles north of here by contract the second well in the Bradford field. His experience in the refining of petroleum is also quite extended, he having been one of the firm of Logan, Emery & Weaver, of Philadelphia, who disposed of their plant there in 1887. The products of this institution are high-test burning oils, and an article they are now making that is meeting with much favor wherever Introduced is their “petroleum linsine,” used in the mixing of paints, taking the place of linseed oil.

The Rock Glycerine Company, B. A. and C. G. Dempsey and N. Francis, members, established their business in 1881. The factories at Custer City Penn., and Lima, Ohio, turn out nitro-glycerine, dynamite and torpedo supplies in large quantities, supplying the two fields and outside territory. This company also own over thirty oil wells. H. G. Cutting, a resident of Bradford since 1878, now operates about fifty wells, the gas from which is used for heating and illuminating purposes in the city.

The Bradford Oil Company was incorporated in 1878 with J. T. Jones, president, T. J. Powers, treasurer, and H. E. Brown and H. H. Adsit, directors. This company own over 300 wells in this and the adjoining Allegany county, N. Y., yielding about 800 barrels per day. For almost fourteen years the members have held a leading place among oil producers.

Whitney & Wheeler established their house in 1875, and the same year founded the Tuna Valley Bank. The dual business was conducted with uniform success until the panic of 1884, when by the failure of their New York correspondent--The Metropolitan National Bank--the firm were obliged to suspend and make an assignment for the benefit of their creditors. The suspension occurred in 1884, and through no fault of theirs the firm found themselves suddenly deprived of the business that they had worked so hard and faithfully to build up. Undaunted by this great disaster, however, they went manfully to work to retrieve their losses; and to their honor and credit be it said that by February, 1886, they had paid their creditors in full with interest, and resumed the control of their property. Since commencing business the firm have confined themselves exclusively to the conduct of their extensive producing interests. Their property in this connection is of the most valuable in the oil regions, and they are among the heaviest producers of petroleum in this section.

The Oil Well Supply Company, sand-reel and band-wheel shop, located on Davis street, employs fifteen men, and its product is valued at $40,000 annually. The officers of the company are John Eaton, president, Pittsburgh, Penn.; K. Chickering, secretary, Oil City, Penn.; E. T. Howes, treasurer, Bradford, Penn.; K. Saulnier, assistant treasurer, Bradford, Penn. The Eaton, Cole & Burnham Company, of New York, and Bridgeport, Conn., are the Eastern correspondents of this company, and are equally well and favorably known. This is the only establishment in the world from which can be obtained everything necessary to drill and equip oil, gas or artesian wells. The machine shops are located on North Mechanic street, where fifty men are steadily employed. Labor, iron, steel and other incidentals bring the total expenditures to the sum of $100,000 per annum.

C. E. Tucker is one of the heavy jobbers in nitro glycerine and torpedoes C. L. Casterline is also an extensive dealer in this class of goods. R. Jennings & Son have been engaged in oil production since 1870, and now hold a leading position among the well proprietors of this field in which they own 125 wells. The Sucker Rod Factory of Gideon Chapman was established here in 1878.

W. G. Chapman’s shop on Dresser avenue employs three men, who turn out $20,000 worth of rods annually. The firm of Wheeler & Simonds was organized in 1877, and the office has been in Bradford since 1879. The business of the firm consists in the production of petroleum, valuable fields being owned in Butler, McKean, and other counties, from which the annual output is of vast magnitude. S. A. Wheeler came to the oil regions from Toledo, Ohio, in 1870, and began operating in Venango county, near Franklin. Later he was interested in Butler county, being manager and part owner of the “Relief Pipe Line Company” for some years previous to forming his present connection. Mr. Wheeler is also a member of the firm of Whitney & Wheeler, and has long been numbered among the representative business men and financiers of this section. J. H. Simonds came to the oil regions in 1864, and has operated in Venango, Butler and McKean counties, his first principal operations having been in the famous “Pithole District.”

The McKee Bull and Sand-wheel Factory was established in 1872 at Franklin, and moved to Bradford, in 1878, by J. W. McKee. The bull wheel manufactured is what is known as the “patent sectional,” its great feature being that it can be detached from the shaft at will. The sand-wheel is made also upon the same principle, and in addition the establishment turns out solid wheels to order, and all parts of all machinery... .The Corbett Reel and Rig Company’s shop is located on Hilton street; employs eight men and does a business of $100,000 annually. The Tuna Iron Works of W. C. Walker & Co., produce $50,000 worth of iron ware annually, and give employment to sixteen men.

The Central Iron Works of Bovaird & Seyfang were established in 1872, and now give employment to 100 men. The product of this establishment embraces engines of from six to 100 horse-power, a noted specialty being a newly improved oil engine. This great utility is manufactured in sizes of twelve, fifteen and twenty horse-power, and is especially adapted to drilling in deep territory, under which circumstances its great rapidity and unsurpassed strength are readily perceived. The firm also manufactures special machinery of all kinds, and are, in all probability, the heaviest producers of drilling and fishing tools in the world. They also deal extensively in boilers, steam pumps, tubing, casing, new and second-hand machinery, machinists’ supplies, and the output is valued at $100,000 annually.

William Robertson & Son, machinists, works located on Chestnut street, employ six men and do a $25,000 business annually. The business of this concern was originally established at Pithole, Penn., in 1865, by the head of the firm, who removed to this city in 1880, and two years later admitted his son, D. W. Robertson….Brown & Manning do a business at 33 Webster street. They employ four men and do a business of $12,000 annually. They run a machine shop. . . .Robert Manning, a native of Pennsylvania, came to Bradford in 1880, and established his present business in the early part of 1885…..D. Phillips, machinist, transects an annual business of $55,000; employs ten men. . . .The Ross Machine & Repair Shops were established by G. W. Ross in 1875, and conducted by him until 1886 when J. H. Ross took charge. The Eureka Iron Works, operated by S. McCaughtry, H. Harris, W. H. Pepper and R. Ireland, produce all kinds of fishing and drilling tools, sand-pumps, boilers, mud sockets and casing cutters. The shops are on Foreman street, and the annual business is over $20,000.

The S. R. Dresser’s Packer Factory is located near the Quaker Rod Shop. Oil and Gas well packers are specialties.. . - Connelly Bros. boiler works, located on Hilton street; employ seven men and do a $12,000 business per annum... .Shearer & Hicks, machinists, shop located on Railroad street; employ 10 men and do a $35,000 business per year. . . . H. J. Rose, machinist, shop on Corydon street; employs two men and does a $30,000 business yearly….Winthrop & Delvin have a small machine shop at No. 35 Webster street; they are practical men and do their own work; they do in the neighborhood of $4,500 yearly…..John Ley has a large plant, a machine shop, on Corydon street; employs twelve men, his yearly business aggregating $25,000.. . .The Lock Manufacturing Company, located at 25 Webster street, employ two men and do a trade of $5,500 per annum . . .Bradford, Bordell & Kendall railroad shops, located up the east branch; employ twenty men and do a $20,000 business yearly. .. .Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh railroad shops, located on the east branch, employ 156 men and do a $250,000 business per annum.

B. C. Quigley’s Ash and Hickory Sucker Rod factory was established here in 1885, although he was a resident of the city for six years prior to that time. His factory on East Main street is thoroughly equipped.

L. Emery, Jr., & Co’s oil well, machinist and railroad supply house, and general hardware store was established in 1876. The store is one of the largest business places in the city. The premises consist of a double two-story brick structure, with large plate glass windows in front, and the interior is systematica1ly and conveniently arranged with all the modern facilities for the handling and displaying of goods. The mammoth stock embraces all kinds of silverware, cutlery, jewelry, optical goods, hardware, and in short everything in the merchandise line excepting shoes and dry goods. A specialty is made of oilwell, machinist and railway supplies, the stock carried being the largest and most complete in this section of the country. The firm’s large warehouse for the accommodation of the surplus is located near the Union Depot. In addition to the above interests the members of this firm are among the heaviest oil producers in this region, under the title of the Emery Oil Company.

This is a separate branch of their extensive business, the office being located at No. 41 Main street. They employ in the several departments of their enterprise a great number of people, and their trade extends throughout the oil regions.

The hardware and oil supply store of H. A. Jamieson and W. H. Pickett was established in 1864 by J. H. Mitchell. The present owners took charge in 1871....Bodine & Walker’s business was founded in 1876 by George Bodine....The Bradford Stone Company was established by C. R. Cosolowsky in May, 1886....J. B. McElwaine founded his oil-well supply house in 1879, and later established branches at Duke Center and Kane, Penn., and Bolivar, N.Y....The Jarecki Manufacturing Company is represented by E. A. Weart....Boggs & Curtis machine and oil well supply store dates to 1884....R. W. Carroll’s agency was established in 1884. He handles the goods of the American Tube and Iron Company, the Gutta Percha and Rubber Manufacturing Company, the Belknap Manufacturing Company, the Hoyt Metal Company, the Crosby Steam Guage and Valve Company, the Hart Manufacturing Company, the Titusville Iron Works, the Watertown Steam Blower Company, the Standard Boiler Feeder Company and many others....The Tifft Engine and Boiler Manufacturing Company has been represented by A. McLean since 1869. Their office here was established in 1860....Dennis & Booth, successors to Jones, Dennis & Booth, established their building business in 1877.

The Bradford Glass Works were erected in 1884 on the site of Brain’s brick-yard, near the Erie Railroad track. A proposition to re-open this industry was pending in June, 1890. The proposition materialized, and on September 25, 1890, the window-glass factory made the third run or heat. Since the successful opening of the works, A. P. Lewis, manager, with thirty-five glass-blowers, seven flatteners, eight cutters, four pot-makers, three packers and sixteen helpers have formed the working force. The glass-blowers received from $125 to $250 per month. No less than 1,000 persons witnessed this third run.

Bradford tooth-pick Factory employs twenty persons and does a $20,000 business per year. Factory on Hilton street. The Clark Mill, on the island, is the only saw-mill in the city. For twenty-five years Mr. Clark has been connected with the lumber industry; product 4,000,000 feet of hemlock annually....H. Tuthill, dealer in sash blinds and dressed lumber, enploys three men and does a yearly business amounting to $30,000; the plant is located at 54 Chestnut street; the house was founded in 1881 by D. Wright....C. F. McAmbly, lumber merchant, yard on Hilton street; employs eighty-five men; his business amounts to $500,000 per annum....P. A. Kent’s yard was established in 1883....The G. Koebly carriage shops, on the island, is one of the largest industries of this class in this section of Pennsylvania....Herman Frank, cigar manufacturer, No. 12 Congress street, employs twenty men, and does a $50,000 business per year....M. L. Pomeroy, harness, etc., employs two men and does a $5,000 business annually; shop located at 6 Pine street....W. H. Walker, manufacturer of harness, etc., whose house was established in 1879 by L. B. Hill, also does considerable business.

John Meyer’s upper factory and leather shop was established in 1878....Sendker Bros.’ shoe store was established in 1880, and C. M. Boswoerth’s in 1885....Drew’s furniture factory was founded in 1880-81....The Consolidated Bottling Company was incorporated in 1882; it is simply a consolidation of the firms of A. F. Kent, Woodbury & Campbell, Mayer Brothers and T. Blakely & Company; the business is well carried on....Campbell Brothers’ bottling works, on Davis street, is a large industry here....Brennan & Davis’ jewelry store was established in 1883; C. H. Norton’s in 1881.

The Bradford office of the Singer Manufacturing Company was established with G. F. Anderson, manager....J. W. Fritts, is also a dealer in sewing machines and organs, and Harrington Brothers in pianos and other musical instruments; also H. E. Morrison. The American Steam Laundry was established in 1878 by H. J. Skinner, who was followed by Godfrey & Hunt, the present owners.

The Pennsylvania Storage Company ia an adaptation of the lumber companymentioned in the history of St. Mary’s. The yards are located on a ten-acre tract, donated by the city in 1888, to which the company added ten acres subsequently. F. W. Brooks is general superintendent. The lumber is brought to the yard in the rough, from the different saw-mills of the county, most of the proprietors being stockholders. A planing-mill is located on the ground, and the lumber is dressed and matched complete for the market. Particular pains are taken in piling the lumber. As soon as a pile is finished it is roofed, and the number of boards booked. Over 11,000,000 feet of lumber are stored on the grounds at present. Nearly all of it is hemlock. The Star, in noticing the great industry, says, “Perhaps our citizens are not aware of the mammoth amount of lumber handled annually by the lumber dealers of this city. The industry has grown to such an extent that it can be classed next to the oil interests in this county.” The reason it is called a storage concern, is because a mill-owner ships his lumber to this plant, and he is given a certificate of the value of his shipment taken from the inspector’s book. Itis stored on the grounds until sold, when he receives his price. In addition to the above the business of making wood alcohol is carried on extensively in the vicinity of Bradford, there being no less than four establishments of the kind--commonly called acid works--within a few miles of the city. They are conducted respectively by A. B. Smith & Co., Ph. Nusbaum & Co., the Alton Chemical Works (limited) and the Lewis Run Chemical Company.

The Wagner Opera House was built and opened in 1876. The building is owned by M. W. Wagner and managed in conjunction with the oil region circuit, comprising Erie, Warren and New Castle, in Pennsylvania, and Elmira, Hornellsville and Olean, in New York, by Wagner and Reis, their headquarters being in this city. Three to four performances a week are given in the Wagner during the season. Among the noteworthy attractions that have appeared at the Opera House may be mentioned Sara Bernhardt, Edwin Booth, Mrs. Langtry, Theodore Thomas’ Orchestra, Gilmore’s Band and the Emma Abbott Opera Company. In addition to the Wagner Opera House there is a variety theatre and numerous halls for concert and other uses.


The humble beginnings of Bradford have been related, and the gradual advances of the settlement to the position of a city traced. Every feature of the building-up process has been painted in documentary languages, true in every particular. Only a few years have passed since the place was a wilderness. Today it is a busy hive of industry, with many of the vices and all the virtues of a great business center. The pioneers of the Bradford oil field built well indeed, and witnessed the springing up of a great, well-regulated and prosperous community out of the ancient groves of the Tuna Valley. Here is the inventive, enterprising, fearless Yankee; there the Pennsylvanian--man of iron nerves; here the sons of Vermont and New Hampshire, happy among the great hills; there the childrenof that Maryland--”the only place in the wide, wide world where religious liberty found a home;” here the shrewd Irishman whose faults almost counterbalance his virtues; the ruddy, fair-haired German working steadily to win a competence and hold it; the Englishman, generally transatlantic; the Italian, untrained to labor; the “cannie” Scot, zealously watchful of his interests; the chivalrous Pole, the polite Frenchman, the money-making Jew, the never-tired Swede or Norwegian, and even the Chinaman--all find employment and a home here. In other points the city claims distinctive features, such as natural terraces, variety of landscape and wildwood drives, all retained involuntarily amid the ruin of old-time forests, change of river courses and assaults on the great hills.

Contributed and or Transcribed by Joyce A. Anthony, Pat Roberts , Janet O'Neil Ruel